Subarachnoid hemorrhage (सबराचोनोइड रक्तस्राव) is bleeding into the subarachnoid space—the area between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater surrounding the brain. Symptoms may include a severe headache of rapid onset, vomiting, decreased level of consciousness, fever, and sometimes seizures. Neck stiffness or neck pain is also relatively common. Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may occur as a result of a head injury or spontaneously, usually from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. Spontaneous SAH occurs in about one per 10,000 people per year. Females are more commonly affected than males. It is a form of stroke and comprises about 5 percent of all strokes.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Meaning
A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a type of bleeding that occurs in the space between the brain and the thin tissues that cover it, known as the arachnoid membrane. This space is called the subarachnoid space. The bleeding usually results from the rupture of a blood vessel, often a small artery, in this area.
Risk factors of Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Symptoms
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Causes
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Diagnosis
Classification of Subarachnoid hemorrhage
There are several grading scales available for SAH. The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is ubiquitously used for assessing consciousness. Its three specialized scores are used to evaluate SAH; in each, a higher number is associated with a worse outcome. These scales have been derived by retrospectively matching the characteristics of people with their outcomes.
The first widely used scale for neurological conditions following SAH was published by Botterell and Cannell in 1956 and referred to as the Botterell Grading Scale. This was modified by Hunt and Hess in 1968:
|Signs and symptoms
|Asymptomatic or minimal headache and slight neck stiffness
|Moderate to severe headache; neck stiffness; no neurologic deficit except cranial nerve palsy
|Drowsy; minimal neurologic deficit
|Stuporous; moderate to severe hemiparesis; possibly early decerebrate rigidity and vegetative disturbances
|Deep coma; decerebrate rigidity; moribund
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Prevention
Subarachnoid hemorrhage Treatment