Hypertension (???? ???????), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms. Long-term high blood pressure, however, is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 18% of all deaths (9.4 million globally). Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System considers our readers to know how one can control this problem without money and medicines.
Hypertension Definition (???? ??????? ?? ???????)
Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure typically does not cause symptoms.
Hypertension Symptoms (???? ??????? ?? ?????)
Hypertension is rarely accompanied by symptoms, and its identification is usually through screening, or when seeking healthcare for an unrelated problem. Some people with high blood pressure report:
- Headaches particularly at the back of the head and in the morning
- Tinnitus (buzzing or hissing in the ears)
- Altered vision or fainting episodes
These symptoms, however, might be related to associated anxiety rather than the high blood pressure itself.
Secondary hypertension (???????? ???? ???????)
Hypertension with certain specific additional signs and symptoms may suggest secondary hypertension, i.e. hypertension due to an identifiable cause.
For example, Cushing’s syndrome frequently causes:
- Truncal obesity
- Glucose intolerance
- Moon face
- A hump of fat behind the neck/shoulder (referred to as a buffalo hump)
- Purple abdominal stretch marks
Hyperthyroidism frequently causes weight loss with increased appetite, fast heart rate, bulging eyes, and tremor.
Pheochromocytoma may cause abrupt episodes of hypertension accompanied by:
- Pale appearance
- Excessive sweating
Hypertensive crisis (???? ??????? ?? ?????? ????)
Severely elevated blood pressure (equal to or greater than a systolic 180 or diastolic of 110) is referred to as a hypertensive crisis. Hypertensive crisis is categorized as either hypertensive urgency or hypertensive emergency, according to the absence or presence of end-organ damage, respectively.
In a hypertensive emergency, there is evidence of direct damage to one or more organs. The most affected organs include the following and the symptoms would include:
In a hypertensive emergency, the blood pressure must be reduced more rapidly to stop ongoing organ damage, however, there is a lack of randomized controlled trial evidence for this approach.
Hypertension in Pregnancy (?????????? ??? ???? ???????)
Hypertension occurs in approximately 8–10% of pregnancies. Two blood pressure measurements six hours apart of greater than 140/90 mm Hg are diagnostic of hypertension in pregnancy. High blood pressure in pregnancy can be classified as pre-existing hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia.
Hypertension in Children (?????? ??? ???? ???????)
Failure to thrive, seizures, irritability, lack of energy, and difficulty in breathing can be associated with hypertension in newborns and young infants. In older infants and children, hypertension can cause headache, unexplained irritability, fatigue, failure to thrive, blurred vision, nosebleeds, and facial paralysis.
Hypertension Causes (???? ??????? ?? ????)
Primary hypertension (???????? ???? ???????)
Hypertension results from a complex interaction of genes and environmental factors. Numerous common genetic variants with small effects on blood pressure have been identified as well as some rare genetic variants with large effects on blood pressure.
Blood pressure rises with aging and the risk of becoming hypertensive in later life is considerable. Several environmental factors influence blood pressure. High salt intake raises the blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals; lack of exercise, obesity, and depression can play a role in individual cases.
The possible roles of other factors such as caffeine consumption and vitamin D deficiency are less clear. Insulin resistance, which is common in obesity and is a component of syndrome X (or the metabolic syndrome), is also thought to contribute to hypertension. One review suggests that sugar may play an important role in hypertension and salt is just an innocent bystander.
Secondary hypertension (???????? ???? ???????)
Secondary hypertension results from an identifiable cause. Kidney disease is the most common secondary cause of hypertension. Hypertension can also be caused by endocrine conditions, such as:
- Cushing’s syndrome
- Conn’s syndrome or hyperaldosteronism
- Renal artery stenosis
Other causes of secondary hypertension include:
- Sleep apnea
- Coarctation of the aorta
- Excessive eating of licorice
- Excessive drinking of alcohol
- Certain prescription medicines
- Herbal remedies, and stimulants
- Arsenic exposure through drinking water
A 2018 review found that any alcohol increased blood pressure in males while over one or two drinks increased the risk in females.
Hypertension Diagnosis (???? ??????? ?? ?????)
Hypertension is diagnosed on the basis of a persistently high resting blood pressure. The American Heart Association recommends at least three resting measurements on at least two separate health care visits. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends ambulatory blood pressure monitoring to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension if a clinic blood pressure is 140/90 mmHg or higher.
Measurement technique (???? ?????)
For an accurate diagnosis of hypertension to be made, it is essential for proper blood pressure measurement technique to be used. Improper measurement of blood pressure is common and can change the blood pressure reading by up to 10 mmHg, which can lead to misdiagnosis and misclassification of hypertension.
Correct blood pressure measurement technique involves several steps. Proper blood pressure measurement requires the person whose blood pressure is being measured to sit quietly for at least five minutes which is then followed by application of a properly fitted blood pressure cuff to a bare upper arm. The person should be seated with their back supported, feet flat on the floor, and with their legs uncrossed.
The person whose blood pressure is being measured should avoid talking or moving during this process. The arm being measured should be supported on a flat surface at the level of the heart. Blood pressure measurement should be done in a quiet room so the medical professional checking the blood pressure can hear the Korotkoff sounds while listening to the brachial artery with a stethoscope for accurate blood pressure measurements.
Other investigations (???? ????)
|Kidney||Microscopic urinalysis, protein in the urine, BUN, creatinine|
|Endocrine||Serum sodium, potassium, calcium, TSH|
|Metabolic||Fasting blood glucose, HDL, LDL, total cholesterol, triglycerides|
|Other||Hematocrit, electrocardiogram, chest radiograph|
Once the diagnosis of hypertension has been made, healthcare providers should attempt to identify the underlying cause based on risk factors and other symptoms, if present.
Hypertension classification in adults (??????? ??? ???? ??????? ?? ????????)
|Category||Systolic, mmHg||Diastolic, mmHg|
(high normal, elevated)
In people aged 18 years or older hypertension is defined as either a systolic or a diastolic blood pressure measurement consistently higher than an accepted normal value (this is above 129 or 139 mmHg systolic, 89 mmHg diastolic depending on the guideline).
Hypertension in children (?????? ??? ???? ???????)
Hypertension occurs in around 0.2 to 3% of newborns; however, blood pressure is not measured routinely in healthy newborns. Hypertension is more common in high-risk newborns. A variety of factors, such as gestational age, postconceptional age, and birth weight needs to be taken into account when deciding if blood pressure is normal in a newborn.
Hypertension Prevention (???? ??????? ?? ??????)
Much of the disease burden of high blood pressure is experienced by people who are not labeled as hypertensive. Consequently, population strategies are required to reduce the consequences of high blood pressure and reduce the need for antihypertensive medications.
Lifestyle changes are recommended to lower blood pressure, before starting medications. The 2004 British Hypertension Society guidelines proposed lifestyle changes consistent with those outlined by the US National High BP Education Program in 2002 for the primary prevention of hypertension:
- Maintain normal body weight for adults
- Reduce dietary sodium intake to <100 mmol/ day
- Engage in regular aerobic physical activity such as brisk walking
- Limit alcohol consumption to no more than 3 units/day in men and no more than 2 units/day in women
- Consume a diet rich in fruit and vegetables
Effective lifestyle modification may lower blood pressure as much as an individual antihypertensive medication. Combinations of two or more lifestyle modifications can achieve even better results. There is considerable evidence that reducing dietary salt intake lowers blood pressure, but whether this translates into a reduction in mortality and cardiovascular disease remains uncertain.
Hypertension Management (???? ??????? ???????)
According to one review published in 2003, reduction of the blood pressure by 5 mmHg can decrease the risk of stroke by 34%, of ischemic heart disease by 21%, and reduce the likelihood of dementia, heart failure, and mortality from cardiovascular disease.
Target blood pressure (??????? ?? ?????? ????)
Various expert groups have produced guidelines regarding how low the blood pressure target should be when a person is treated for hypertension. These groups recommend a target below the range 140–160 / 90–100 mmHg for the general population. Cochrane reviews recommend similar targets for subgroups such as people with diabetes and people with prior cardiovascular disease.
Lifestyle modifications (???? ???? ??? ??????)
The first line of treatment for hypertension is lifestyle changes, including:
Though these have all been recommended in scientific advisories, a Cochrane systematic review found no evidence for effects of weight-loss diets on death, long-term complications or adverse events in persons with hypertension. Dietary changes shown to reduce blood pressure include:
- Diets with low sodium
- The DASH diet
- Vegetarian diets
- Green tea consumption
Increasing dietary potassium has a potential benefit in lowering the risk of hypertension.
Physical exercise regimens which are shown to reduce blood pressure include:
- Isometric resistance exercise
- Aerobic exercise
- Resistance exercise
- Device-guided breathing
Stress reduction techniques such as biofeedback or transcendental meditation may be considered as an add-on to other treatments to reduce hypertension, but do not have evidence for preventing cardiovascular disease on their own.
DASH Diet (??? ????)
The DASH diet includes lots of whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. The DASH diet also includes some fish, poultry, and legumes, and encourages a small number of nuts and seeds a few times a week.
You can eat red meat, sweets, and fats in small amounts. The DASH diet is low in saturated fat, trans fat, and total fat.
Here’s a look at the recommended servings from each food group for the 2,000-calorie-a-day DASH diet.
Grains: 6 to 8 servings a day (????: 6 ?? 8 ?????????)
Grains include bread, cereal, rice, and pasta. Examples of one serving of grains include 1 slice whole-wheat bread, 1-ounce dry cereal, or 1/2 cup cooked cereal, rice or pasta.
- Focus on whole grains because they have more fiber and nutrients than do refined grains. For instance, use brown rice instead of white rice, whole-wheat pasta instead of regular pasta and whole-grain bread instead of white bread. Look for products labeled “100% whole grain” or “100% whole wheat.”
- Grains are naturally low in fat. Keep them this way by avoiding butter, cream and cheese sauces.
Vegetables: 4 to 5 servings a day (????????: ??? ??? 4 ?? 5 ???????)
Tomatoes, carrots, broccoli, sweet potatoes, greens, and other vegetables are full of fiber, vitamins, and such minerals as potassium and magnesium. Examples of one serving include 1 cup raw leafy green vegetables or 1/2 cup cut-up raw or cooked vegetables.
- Don’t think of vegetables only as side dishes — a hearty blend of vegetables served over brown rice or whole-wheat noodles can serve as the main dish for a meal.
- Fresh and frozen vegetables are both good choices. When buying frozen and canned vegetables, choose those labeled as low sodium or without added salt.
- To increase the number of servings you fit in daily, be creative. In a stir-fry, for instance, cut the amount of meat in half and double up on the vegetables.
Fruits: 4 to 5 servings a day (??: ??? ??? 4 ?? 5 ???????)
Many fruits need little preparation to become a healthy part of a meal or snack. Like vegetables, they’re packed with fiber, potassium, and magnesium and are typically low in fat — coconuts are an exception.
Examples of one serving include one medium fruit, 1/2 cup fresh, frozen or canned fruit, or 4 ounces of juice.
- Have a piece of fruit with meals and one as a snack, then round out your day with a dessert of fresh fruits topped with a dollop of low-fat yogurt.
- Leave on edible peels whenever possible. The peels of apples, pears, and most fruits add interesting texture to recipes and contain healthy nutrients and fiber.
- Remember that citrus fruits and juices, such as grapefruit, can interact with certain medications, so check with your doctor or pharmacist to see if they’re OK for you.
- If you choose canned fruit or juice, make sure no sugar is added.
Dairy: 2 to 3 servings a day (?????: ??? ??? 2 ?? 3 ???????)
Milk, yogurt, cheese, and other dairy products are major sources of calcium, vitamin D and protein. But the key is to make sure that you choose dairy products that are low-fat or fat-free because otherwise they can be a major source of fat — and most of it is saturated.
Examples of one serving include 1 cup skim or 1 percent milk, 1 cup low-fat yogurt, or 1 1/2 ounces part-skim cheese.
- Low-fat or fat-free frozen yogurt can help you boost the number of dairy products you eat while offering a sweet treat. Add fruit for a healthy twist.
- If you have trouble digesting dairy products, choose lactose-free products or consider taking an over-the-counter product that contains the enzyme lactase, which can reduce or prevent the symptoms of lactose intolerance.
- Go easy on regular and even fat-free cheeses because they are typically high in sodium.
Lean meat, poultry, and fish: 6 servings or fewer (????? ????, ?????? ????, ?? ????: 6 ????????? ?? ??)
Meat can be a rich source of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc. Choose lean varieties and aim for no more than 6 one-ounce servings a day. Cutting back on your meat portion will allow room for more vegetables.
Examples of one serving include 1 egg or 1 ounce of cooked meat, poultry or fish.
- Trim away skin and fat from poultry and meat and then bake, broil, grill or roast instead of frying in fat.
- Eat heart-healthy fish, such as salmon, herring and tuna. These types of fish are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are healthy for your heart.
Nuts, seeds, and legumes: 4 to 5 servings a week (??, ??? ?? ??????: ?? ?????? ??? 4 ?? 5 ???????)
Almonds, sunflower seeds, kidney beans, peas, lentils and other foods in this family are good sources of magnesium, potassium, and protein.
They’re also full of fiber and phytochemicals, which are plant compounds that may protect against some cancers and cardiovascular disease.
Serving sizes are small and are intended to be consumed only a few times a week because these foods are higher in calories.
Examples of one serving include 1/3 cup nuts, 2 tablespoons seeds or nut butter, or 1/2 cup cooked beans or peas.
- Nuts sometimes get a bad rap because of their fat content, but they contain healthy types of fat — monounsaturated fat and omega-3 fatty acids. Nuts are high in calories, however, so eat them in moderation. Try adding them to stir-fries, salads or cereals.
- Soybean-based products, such as tofu and tempeh, can be a good alternative to meat because they contain all of the amino acids your body needs to make a complete protein, just like meat.
Fats and oils: 2 to 3 servings a day (??? ?? ???: ??? ??? 2 ?? 3 ???????)
The DASH diet strives for a healthy balance by limiting total fat to less than 30 percent of daily calories from fat, with a focus on healthier monounsaturated fats.
Examples of one serving include 1 teaspoon soft margarine, 1 tablespoon mayonnaise or 2 tablespoons salad dressing.
- Saturated fat and trans fat are the main dietary culprits in increasing your risk of coronary artery disease. DASH helps keep your daily saturated fat to less than 6 percent of your total calories by limiting the use of meat, butter, cheese, whole milk, cream and eggs in your diet, along with foods made from lard, solid shortenings, and palm and coconut oils.
- Avoid trans fat, commonly found in such processed foods as crackers, baked goods, and fried items.
- Read food labels on margarine and salad dressing so that you can choose foods that are lowest in saturated fat and free of trans fat.
Sweets: 5 servings or fewer (?????: 5 ????????? ?? ??)
You don’t have to banish sweets entirely while following the DASH diet — just go easy on them. Examples of one serving include 1 tablespoon sugar, jelly or jam, 1/2 cup sorbet, or 1 cup lemonade.
- When you eat sweets, choose those that are fat-free or low-fat, such as sorbets, fruit ices, jelly beans, hard candy, graham crackers or low-fat cookies.
- Artificial sweeteners such as aspartame and sucralose may help satisfy your sweet tooth while sparing the sugar. But remember that you still must use them sensibly. It’s OK to swap a diet cola for a regular cola, but not in place of a more nutritious beverage such as low-fat milk or even plain water.
- Cut back on added sugar, which has no nutritional value but can pack on calories.
Hypertension Medications (???? ??????? ?? ?????)
Several classes of medications collectively referred to as antihypertensive medications are available for treating hypertension.
First-line medications for hypertension include:
- Calcium channel blockers
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors)
- Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs)
These medications may be used alone or in combination (ACE inhibitors and ARBs are not recommended for use in combination).
Hypertension & Free Siddha energy remedies (???? ??????? ?? ??:????? ????? ????? ?????)
To know free Siddha energy remedies, please refer our article “High Blood Pressure & Free Siddha Energy Remedies” and other associated details.
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