Marburg virus disease (MVD; formerly Marburg hemorrhagic fever) is a viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and primates caused by either of the two Marburg viruses: Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). Its clinical symptoms are very similar to those of Ebola virus disease (EVD). Egyptian fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature and Marburg virus RNA has been isolated from them. The Marburg virus is transmitted to humans from fruit bats and can then spread from person to person through direct contact with the blood, secretions, organs, or other bodily fluids of infected people. Outbreaks of Marburg virus disease have occurred in Africa, primarily in countries such as Uganda, Kenya, Angola, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The disease can lead to significant public health challenges due to its high mortality rate and potential for rapid spread within communities.
Marburg virus disease Meaning
Marburg virus disease, also known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, is a severe and often fatal illness caused by the Marburg virus, a member of the Filoviridae virus family. This disease is characterized by a sudden onset of symptoms, which can include fever, chills, weakness, and muscle pain, followed by the rapid development of severe bleeding, both internally and externally. Other symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and organ dysfunction.
Marburg virus disease Key facts
- Marburg virus disease (MVD), formerly known as Marburg hemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans.
- The virus causes severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans.
- The average MVD case fatality rate is around 50%. Case fatality rates have varied from 24% to 88% in past outbreaks depending on virus strain and case management.
- Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves survival. There is as yet no licensed treatment proven to neutralize the virus, but a range of blood products, immune therapies, and drug therapies are currently under development.
- Rousettus aegyptiacus, fruit bats of the Pteropodidae family, are considered to be natural hosts of the Marburg virus. The Marburg virus is transmitted to people from fruit bats and spreads among humans through human-to-human transmission.
- Community engagement is key to successfully controlling outbreaks.
Marburg virus disease Causes
Marburg virus disease Diagnosis
Marburg Virus Disease Classification
Marburg virus disease (MVD) is the official name listed in the World Health Organization’s International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10 (ICD-10) for the human disease caused by any of the two marburgviruses Marburg virus (MARV) and Ravn virus (RAVV). In the scientific literature, Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF) is often used as an unofficial alternative name for the same disease. Both disease names are derived from the German city of Marburg, where MARV was first discovered.
Marburg virus disease Transmission
The details of the initial transmission of MVD to humans remain incompletely understood. Transmission most likely occurs from Egyptian fruit bats or another natural host, such as non-human primates, or through the consumption of bush meat, but the specific routes and body fluids involved are unknown. Human-to-human transmission of MVD occurs through direct contact with infected bodily fluids such as blood.
Marburg Virus Disease Prevention
Marburg virus disease Treatment
Marburg virus disease Prognosis
The prognosis is generally poor. If a patient survives, recovery may be prompt and complete, or protracted with sequelae, such as orchitis, hepatitis, uveitis, parotitis, desquamation, or alopecia. Importantly, MARV is known to be able to persist in some survivors and to either reactivate and cause a secondary bout of MVD or be transmitted via sperm, causing secondary cases of infection and disease.
Of the 252 people who contracted Marburg during the 2004–2005 outbreak of a particularly virulent serotype in Angola, 227 died, for a case fatality rate of 90%. Although all age groups are susceptible to infection, children are rarely infected. In the 1998–2000 Congo epidemic, only 8% of the cases were children under 5 years old.
Ayurveda Treatment for Marburg Virus Disease
There are no specific Ayurvedic treatments or herbal remedies proven to be effective for Marburg virus disease. Ayurveda is an ancient system of traditional medicine that has been practiced in India for centuries and includes various herbal treatments and therapies. However, it’s important to note that Ayurvedic remedies have not been scientifically proven to treat or prevent viral diseases caused by pathogens like the Marburg virus.
In conclusion, Marburg virus disease is a rare but highly virulent and deadly viral illness caused by the Marburg virus, a member of the Filoviridae family. The disease is characterized by a sudden onset of fever, weakness, muscle pain, and severe bleeding, both internally and externally. It is primarily transmitted to humans from fruit bats and can spread from person to person through close contact with infected individuals and their bodily fluids. As of the update in September 2021, there were no specific antiviral treatments or vaccines available for Marburg virus disease, making prevention through infection control measures and public health strategies paramount in managing outbreaks. Ongoing research and public health vigilance are critical in the effort to understand, prevent, and treat this devastating disease.
Frequently Asked Questions