Omega 3 fatty acids [ओमेगा 3 फैटी एसिड] (also called ω−3 fatty acids or n−3 fatty acids) are polyunsaturated fatty acids characterized by the presence of a double bond three atoms away from the terminal methyl group in their chemical structure. The three types of omega 3 fatty acids involved in human physiology are α-linolenic acid (ALA), found in plant oils, and eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, both commonly found in marine oils. Considering the health importance of omega 3 fatty acids, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System wishes our readers to know in-depth about.
Omega 3 fatty acids Importance (ओमेगा 3 फैटी एसिड का महत्व)
For a normal metabolism, omega 3 is important. Mammals are unable to synthesize the essential omega 3 fatty acid ALA and must obtain it through diet, which they can then use to form the long-chain omega 3 fatty acids, EPA and then from EPA make DHA. The ability to make the longer-chain omega 3 fatty acids from ALA may be impaired in aging.
In foods exposed to air, unsaturated fatty acids e.g. polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats are vulnerable to oxidation and rancidity. Dietary supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids does not appear to affect the risk of death, cancer or heart disease. Furthermore, fish oil supplement studies have failed to support claims of preventing heart attacks or strokes or any vascular disease outcomes.
Omega 3 fatty acids Health effects (ओमेगा 3 फैटी एसिड का स्वास्थ्य प्रभाव)
Supplementation does not appear to be associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality.
The evidence linking the consumption of marine omega 3 fats to a lower risk of cancer is poor. With the possible exception of breast cancer, there is insufficient evidence that supplementation with omega 3 fatty acids has an effect on different cancers. The effect of consumption on prostate cancer is not conclusive.
There is a decreased risk with higher blood levels of DPA, but an increased risk of more aggressive prostate cancer was shown with higher blood levels of combined EPA and DHA. In people with advanced cancer and cachexia, omega 3 fatty acids supplements may be of benefit, improving appetite, weight, and quality of life.
Cardiovascular disease (हृदय रोग)
Evidence in the population generally does not support a beneficial role for omega 3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing cardiovascular disease or stroke.
However, omega−3 fatty acids supplementation greater than one gram daily for at least a year may be protective against cardiac death, sudden death, and myocardial infarction in people who have a history of cardiovascular disease. No protective effect against the development of stroke or all-cause mortality was seen in this population.
Eating a diet high in fish that contain long chain omega 3 fatty acids does appear to decrease the risk of stroke. Fish oil supplementation has not been shown to benefit revascularization or abnormal heart rhythms and has no effect on heart failure hospital admission rates.
Evidence suggests that omega−3 fatty acids modestly lower blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) in people with hypertension and in people with normal blood pressure.
The effect of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on stroke is unclear, with a possible benefit in women.
For rheumatoid arthritis, one systematic review found consistent but modest, evidence for the effect of marine n−3 PUFAs on symptoms such as joint swelling and pain, duration of morning stiffness, global assessments of pain and disease activity as well as the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Developmental disabilities (विकास असमर्थता)
Although not supported by current scientific evidence as a primary treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and other developmental disabilities, omega 3 fatty acid supplements are being given to children with these conditions.
One meta-analysis concluded that omega 3 fatty acid supplementation demonstrated a modest effect for improving ADHD symptoms. Another review concluded that the evidence is inconclusive for the use of omega 3 fatty acids in behavior and non-neurodegenerative neuropsychiatric disorders such as ADHD and depression.
Mental health (मानसिक स्वास्थ्य)
There is some evidence that omega 3 is related to mental health, including that they may tentatively be useful as an add-on for the treatment of depression associated with bipolar disorder. There is also preliminary evidence that EPA supplementation is helpful in cases of depression.
The link between omega 3 and depression has been attributed to the fact that many of the products of the omega 3 synthesis pathway play key roles in regulating inflammation which has been linked to depression. `
Cognitive aging (संज्ञानात्मक उम्र बढ़ना)
Epidemiological studies are inconclusive about an effect of omega 3 fatty acids on the mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease. There is preliminary evidence of an effect on mild cognitive problems, but none supporting an effect in healthy people or those with dementia.
Brain and visual functions (मस्तिष्क और दृश्य कार्य)
Brain function and vision rely on dietary intake of DHA to support a broad range of cell membrane properties, particularly in grey matter, which is rich in membranes. A major structural component of the mammalian brain, DHA is the most abundant omega 3 fatty acids in the brain.
Risk of deficiency (कमी का खतरा)
People with PKU often have a low intake of omega 3 fatty acids. However, such people should include omega 3 in their diet due to high protein content.
As of 2015, there was no evidence that taking omega 3 supplements can prevent asthma attacks in children.
Omega 3 fatty acids Forms (ओमेगा 3 फैटी एसिड के रूप)
Omega 3 occurs naturally in two forms, triglycerides and phospholipids.
The triglycerides can be converted to the free fatty acid or to methyl or ethyl esters, and the individual esters of omega 3 are available.
Omega 3 fatty acids Foods (ओमेगा 3 फैटी एसिड खाद्य पदार्थ)
Dietary recommendations (आहार की सिफारिशें)
As for safety, there was insufficient evidence as of 2005 to set an upper tolerable limit for omega 3 fatty acids, although the FDA has advised that adults can safely consume up to a total of 3 grams per day of combined DHA and EPA, with no more than 2 g from dietary supplements.
Heavy metal poisoning by the body’s accumulation of traces of heavy metals, in particular:
Above are a possible risk from consuming fish oil supplements.
However, heavy metal toxicity from consuming fish oil supplements is highly unlikely, because heavy metals selectively bind with protein in the fish flesh rather than accumulate in the oil. An independent test in 2005 of 44 fish oils on the US market found all of the products passed safety standards for potential contaminants.
The most widely available dietary source of EPA and DHA is oily fish, such as:
Oils from these fish have a profile of around seven times as much omega 3 as omega 6. Other oily fish, such as tuna, also contain n-3 in somewhat lesser amounts.
Fish oil (मछली का तेल)
Marine and freshwater fish oil vary in content of arachidonic acid, EPA and DHA. They also differ in their effects on organ lipids.
Not all forms of fish oil may be equally digestible. Of four studies that compare bioavailability of the glyceryl ester form of fish oil vs. the ethyl ester form, two have concluded the natural glyceryl ester form is better, and the other two studies did not find a significant difference.
Krill oil is a source of omega 3 fatty acids. The effect of krill oil, at a lower dose of EPA + DHA (62.8%), was demonstrated to be similar to that of fish oil on blood lipid levels and markers of inflammation in healthy humans.
Plant sources (पौधे के स्रोत)
Flaxseed or linseed (Linum usitatissimum) and its oil are perhaps the most widely available botanical source of the omega 3 fatty acid ALA. Flaxseed oil consists of approximately 55% ALA, which makes it six times richer than most fish oils. A portion of this is converted by the body to EPA and DHA, though the actual converted percentage may differ between men and women.
Eggs produced by hens fed a diet of greens and insects contain higher levels of omega 3 fatty acids than those produced by chickens fed corn or soybeans. In addition to feeding chickens insects and greens, fish oils may be added to their diets to increase the omega 3 fatty acid concentrations in eggs.
The addition of flax and canola seeds to the diets of chickens, both good sources of alpha-linolenic acid, increases the omega 3 content of the eggs, predominantly DHA.
Seaweeds and algae are the sources of omega 3 present in fish, the grass is the source of omega 3 present in grass-fed animals. Chicken meat contents may be enhanced with omega 3 fatty acids by increasing the animals’ dietary intake of grains high in omega 3, such as:
Kangaroo meat is also a source of omega 3, with fillet and steak containing 74 mg per 100 g of raw meat.
Seal oil (सील का तेल)
Seal oil is a source of EPA, DPA, and DHA. According to Health Canada, it helps to support the development of the brain, eyes, and nerves in children up to 12 years of age. Like all seal products, it is not allowed to be imported into the European Union.