Walking (चलना) is also known as ambulation and one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, which is typically slower than running and other gaits. It is defined by an ‘inverted pendulum’ gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the unusable number of limbs, even arthropods, with six, eight, or more limbs, walk. Today ambulation is considered as exercise especially in the big cities due to the affordability of vehicles for meeting the day-to-day needs of transportation. Although it is a simple movement of the body, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System appeals to our valuable readers to know in-depth about it and it’s health benefits.
Walking Meaning (चलने का अर्थ)
The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan “to roll”.
How different walking is from running (चलना दौड़ने से कितना अलग है)
In humans and other bipeds, ambulation is generally distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins when both feet are off the ground with each step. This distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events.
For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, and distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification.
The most effective method to distinguish ambulation from running is to measure the height of a person’s center of mass using motion capture or a force plate at midstance. During walking, the center of mass reaches a maximum height at midstance, while during running, it is then at a minimum. This distinction, however, only holds true for locomotion over level or approximately level ground. For walking up grades above 10%, this distinction no longer holds for some individuals.
Speed is another factor that distinguishes ambulation from running. Although walking speeds can vary greatly depending on many factors such as height, weight, age, terrain, surface, load, culture, effort, and fitness, the average human walking speed at crosswalks is about 5.0 kilometers per hour (km/h), or about 1.4 meters per second (m/s), or about 3.1 miles per hour (mph).
An average human child achieves independent walking ability at around 11 months old.
Walking Types (चलने के प्रकार)
There are a variety of different kinds of walking, including:
- Beach ambulation
- Nordic ambulation
- Dog ambulation
Some people prefer to walk indoors on a treadmill, or in a gym, and fitness walkers and others may use a pedometer to count their steps. Hiking is the usual word used in Canada, the United States, and South Africa for long vigorous walks; similar walks are called tramps in New Zealand, or hill walking or just ambulation in Australia, the UK, and the Irish Republic. Australians also bushwalk. In English-speaking parts of North America, the term walking is used for short walks, especially in towns and cities. Snowshoeing is walking in the snow; a slightly different gait is required compared with regular walking.
Scrambling (संघर्ष करना)
Scrambling is a method of ascending a hill or mountain that involves using both hands, because of the steepness of the terrain. Of necessity, it will be a slow and careful form of ambulation and with possibly of occasional brief, easy rock climbing. Some scrambling takes place on narrow exposed ridges where more attention to balance will be required than in normal walking.
Snowshoeing – A snowshoe is footwear for walking over the snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person’s foot does not sink completely into the snow, a quality called flotation. Snowshoers often say that if you can walk, you can snowshoe. This is true in optimal conditions, but snowshoeing properly requires some slight adjustments to walking.
The method of walking is to lift the shoes slightly and slide the inner edges over each other, thus avoiding the unnatural and fatiguing “straddle-gait” that would otherwise be necessary. A snowshoer must be willing to roll his or her feet slightly as well. An exaggerated stride works best when starting out, particularly with larger or traditional shoes.
Beach walking (समुद्र तट पर चलना)
It is a sport that is based on a walk on the sand of the beach. There are competitions on non-compact sand, and there are world records on non-compact sand in Multiday distances. Beach walking has a specific technique of walk.
Nordic walking (नॉर्डिक चलना)
Nordic walking is a physical activity and a sport, which is performed with specially designed ambulation poles similar to ski poles. Compared to regular walking, Nordic walking involves applying force to the poles with each stride. Nordic walking has been estimated as producing up to a 46% increase in energy consumption, compared to walking without poles.
Pedestrianism is a sport that developed during the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries and was a popular spectator sport in the British Isles. Interest in the sport, and the wagering which accompanied it, spread to the United States, Canada, and Australia in the 19th century.
Speed walking (तेजी से चलना)
Power or speed walking is the act of ambulation with a speed at the upper end of the natural range for walking gait, typically 7 to 9 km/h (4.5 to 5.5 mph). To qualify as power walking as opposed to jogging or running, at least one foot must be in contact with the ground at all times.
Race walking (दौडते हुए चलना)
Racewalking is a long-distance athletic event. Although it is a foot race, it is different from running in that one foot must appear to be in contact with the ground at all times. Stride length is reduced, so to achieve competitive speeds, racewalkers must attain cadence rates comparable to those achieved by Olympic 800-meter runners, and they must do so for hours at a time since the Olympic events are the 20 km (12.4 mi) race walk and 50 km (31 mi) race walk (men only), and 50-mile (80.5 km) events are also held.
Afghan walking (अफगान चलना)
The Afghan Walk is a rhythmic breathing technique synchronized with walking. Édouard G. Stiegler, during his contacts with Afghan caravaners, capable of making walks of more than 60 km per day for dozens of days.
Walking Health benefits (पैदल चलने से स्वास्थ्य लाभ)
Regular, brisk exercise of any kind can improve confidence, stamina, energy, weight control, and life expectancy and reduce stress. It can also reduce the risk of:
Scientific studies have also shown that walking, besides its physical benefits, is also beneficial for the mind, improving memory skills, learning ability, concentration, and abstract reasoning, as well as ameliorating spirits.
Reduces Health risks (स्वास्थ्य जोखिमों को कम करता है)
Sustained walking sessions for a minimum period of thirty to sixty minutes a day, five days a week, with the correct walking posture, reduce health risks and have various overall health benefits, such as reducing:
Improves Walking (चलने में सुधार)
- Bone health, especially strengthening the hip bone
- Lowering the harmful low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol
- Raising the useful high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol
- May also help prevent dementia and Alzheimer’s
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s fact sheet on the “Relationship of Walking to Mortality Among U.S. Adults with Diabetes” states that those with diabetes who walked for 2 or more hours a week lowered their mortality rate from all causes by 39 percent.
Women who took 4,500 steps to 7,500 steps a day seemed to have fewer premature deaths compared to those who only took 2,700 steps a day. “Walking lengthened the life of people with diabetes regardless of age, sex, race, body mass index, length of time since diagnosis, and presence of complications or functional limitations.” It has been suggested that there is a relationship between the speed of walking and health and that the best results are obtained with a speed of more than 2.5 mph (4 km/h).
Governments now recognize the benefits of walking for mental and physical health and are actively encouraging it. This growing emphasis on walking has arisen because people walk less nowadays than previously. In the UK, a Department of Transport report found that between 1995/97 and 2005 the average number of walk trips per person fell by 16%, from 292 to 245 per year.
Walking Safety tips (चलने की सुरक्षा युक्तियाँ)
If you are new to exercise, here are some important health and safety tips so you can start your program off on the right foot.
- Always check with your doctor before starting an exercise program. He or she may require that you have a physical exam or give you special instructions based on your medical history.
- Don’t overdo it, especially if you are a beginner. Let your body adjust to the new activity, gradually increasing the duration and frequency of your workouts.
- Wear appropriate shoes. Not every shoe offers the stability and cushioning you need to walk.
- For the first few weeks, do not push too hard. Use the Talk Test to know if you’re walking at the right intensity level: If you cannot answer a question, you are walking too fast. If you can have a full conversation, you are walking too slowly.
- Walking shouldn’t hurt. If you experience any kind of muscle, joint, chest, or head pain, see your family physician right away.
- Wear a watch so you can monitor the time spent walking. Set small goals to gradually increase the amount of time you walk each week. You can also wear a pedometer to keep track of distance and steps, which can be a big motivator to keep going.
Walking Safety tips for outdoor (आउटडोर के लिए सुरक्षा युक्तियाँ )
Walking outside is a great way to enjoy the fresh air and get a workout at the same time! Before you lace up those sneakers, here are some important safety tips you’ll want to consider if you head outdoors to walk:
Find a buddy (एक साथी का पता लगाएं)
Walking with someone can be a great motivator and make the time more enjoyable. But more importantly, there is always safety in numbers. If you walk alone, make sure you tell someone your route and the time you expect to return.
Wear light-colored clothing (हल्के रंग के कपड़े पहनें)
If you will be outside early morning or later evening, wear light-colored clothing or reflectors. A lot of workout attire has reflective materials built-in, such pants or jackets with reflective strips, shoes with reflective material on the heel, or reflective belts. All of these will help you be more visible to oncoming traffic. Also, try to walk on well-lit streets as much as possible.
Walk facing the traffic (ट्रैफिक की ओर मुंह करते हुए चलें)
Especially if there are no sidewalks or pathways on your route, the rules of the road say you should walk against the traffic. This way, you can see the traffic coming and be aware of any potential danger coming toward you.
Vary route (मार्ग बदलते रहें)
This is for safety as well as enjoyment. It is much more interesting to experience different surroundings from time to time. This also prevents anyone else from memorizing your whereabouts or routine.
Beware of drivers (चालकों से सावधान रहें)
Do not assume that drivers know when pedestrians have the right of way. Walk with awareness and caution, assuming that no drivers see you. Be especially cautious of driveways—most drivers are watching for oncoming cars, not walkers.
Beware of surroundings (परिवेश से सावधान रहें)
Watch for ice, water, bike riders, cracks in the pavement, or any other hazards in your path. It can be very easy to trip and fall without warning, which can be especially dangerous if you are alone.
Walkability concept (चलने की अवधारणा)
There has been a recent focus among urban planners in some communities to create pedestrian-friendly areas and roads, allowing commuting, shopping, and recreation to be done on foot. The concept of walkability has arisen as a measure of the degree to which an area is friendly to walking.
Some communities are at least partially car-free, making them particularly supportive of walking and other modes of transportation. In the United States, the active living network is an example of a concerted effort to develop communities more friendly to walking and other physical activities.
The first successful attempts at walking robots tended to have six legs. The number of legs was reduced as microprocessor technology advanced, and there are now a number of robots that can walk on two legs. One, for example, is ASIMO. Although robots have taken great strides in advancement, they still don’t walk nearly as well as human beings as they often need to keep their knees bent permanently in order to improve stability.
Amputee children (अमपूत बच्चे)
For normal non-disabled children, it is a lot different than walking for below-knee-amputees. Walking is less fluid and symmetrical for the children who are amputees. Because of the research carried out, the results of the study which showed that the bodied children could withstand a lot more external loading than the amputees.
Researchers are now looking into the manufacturing and design of the prosthetics that these amputees use. Potentially, they could come up with a new idea or a model that can improve the walking capabilities of these amputee children.