The reproductive system (प्रजनन प्रणाली) or genital system is a system of sex organs within an organism that works together for the purpose of sexual reproduction. Many non-living substances such as fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also important accessories to the reproductive system. Unlike most organ systems, the sexes of differentiated species often have significant differences. These differences allow for a combination of genetic material between two individuals, which allows for the possibility of greater genetic fitness of the offspring. Reproductive system, being one of the most important systems, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System appeal our valuable readers to get well-acquainted with this system and related diseases.
Reproductive system Animals (जानवरों की प्रजनन प्रणाली )
In mammals, the major organs of the reproductive system include the external genitalia i. e.penis and vulva as well as a number of internal organs, including gamete-producing gonads i.e. testicles and ovaries. Diseases of the human reproductive system are very common and widespread, particularly communicable sexually transmitted diseases.
Most other vertebrate animals have generally similar reproductive systems consisting of gonads, ducts, and openings. However, there is a great diversity of physical adaptations as well as reproductive strategies in every group of vertebrates.
Vertebrates (रीढ़ या मेरुदंड वाले जानवर)
Vertebrate animals all share key elements of their reproductive systems. They all have gamete-producing organs or gonads. In females, these gonads are then connected by oviducts to an opening to the outside of the body, typically the cloaca, but sometimes to a unique pore such as a vagina or intromittent organ.
Humans Reproductive system (मनुष्य प्रजनन प्रणाली)
The human reproductive system usually involves internal fertilization by sexual intercourse. During this process, the male inserts his erect penis into the female’s vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. The sperm then travels through the vagina and cervix into the uterus or fallopian tubes for fertilization of the ovum.
The female reproductive system has two functions:
- The first is to produce egg cells, and
- The second is to protect and nourish the offspring until birth
The male reproductive system has one function, and it is to produce and deposit sperm. Humans have a high level of sexual differentiation. In addition to differences in nearly every reproductive organ, numerous differences typically occur in secondary sexual characteristics.
Male Reproductive system (पुरुष प्रजनन प्रणाली)
The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside of the body and around the pelvic region of a male that contributes towards the reproduction process. The primary direct function of the male reproductive system is to provide the male sperm for fertilization of the ovum.
The major reproductive organs of the male can be grouped into three categories:
- The first category is sperm production and storage. Production takes place in the testes which are housed in the temperature regulating scrotum, immature sperm then travel to the epididymis for development and storage.
- The second category is the ejaculatory fluid producing glands which include the seminal vesicles, prostate, and the vas deferens.
- The final category is those used for copulation, and deposition of the spermatozoa (sperm) within the male, these include the penis, urethra, vas deferens, and Cowper’s gland.
Major secondary sexual characteristics include:
- More muscular stature
- Deepened voice
- Facial and body hair
- Broad shoulders
- Development of Adam’s apple
An important sexual hormone of males is androgen, and particularly testosterone.
The testes release a hormone that controls the development of sperm. This hormone is also responsible for the development of physical characteristics in men such as facial hair and a deep voice.
Female Reproductive system (महिला प्रजनन प्रणाली)
The human female reproductive system is a series of organs primarily located inside of the body and around the pelvic region of a female that contributes towards the reproductive process. The human female reproductive system contains three main parts:
- The vulva, which leads to the vagina, the vaginal opening, to the uterus
- The uterus, which holds the developing fetus
- The ovaries, which produce the female’s ova
Other mammals (अन्य स्तनधारी)
Most mammal reproductive systems are similar, however, there are some notable differences between the non-human mammals and humans. For instance, most male mammals have a penis that is stored internally until erect, and most have a penis bone or baculum.
Additionally, males of most species do not remain continually sexually fertile as humans do. Like humans, most groups of mammals have descended testicles found within a scrotum, however, others have descended testicles that rest on the ventral body wall, and a few groups of mammals, such as elephants, have undescended testicles found deep within their body cavities near their kidneys.
In domestic canines, sexual maturity (puberty) occurs between the ages of 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this can be delayed until up to two years of age for some large breeds.
The mare’s reproductive system is responsible for controlling gestation, birth, and lactation, as well as her estrous cycle and mating behavior. The stallion’s reproductive system is responsible for his sexual behavior and secondary sex characteristics such as a large crest.
Male and female birds have a cloaca, an opening through which eggs, sperm, and wastes pass. Intercourse is performed by pressing the lips of the cloacae together, which is sometimes known as an intromittent organ which is known as a phallus that is analogous to the mammals’ penis. The female lays amniotic eggs in which the young fetus continues to develop after it leaves the female’s body. Unlike most vertebrates, female birds typically have only one functional ovary and oviduct. As a group, birds, like mammals, are noted for their high level of parental care.
Reptiles (रेंगने वाले जीव)
Reptiles are almost all sexually dimorphic and exhibit internal fertilization through the cloaca. Some reptiles lay eggs while others are ovoviviparous. Reproductive organs are found within the cloaca of reptiles. Most male reptiles have copulatory organs, which are usually retracted or inverted and stored inside the body. In turtles and crocodilians, the male has a single median penis-like organ, while male snakes and lizards each possess a pair of penis-like organs.
Most amphibians exhibit external fertilization of eggs, typically within the water, though some amphibians such as caecilians have internal fertilization. All have paired, internal gonads, connected by ducts to the cloaca.
Most fish, however, are oviparous and exhibit external fertilization. In this process, females use their cloaca to release large quantities of their gametes, called spawn into the water and one or more males release “milt”, a white fluid containing much sperm over the unfertilized eggs. Other species of fish are oviparous and have internal fertilization aided by pelvic or anal fins that are modified into an intromittent organ analogous to the human penis. A small portion of fish species are either viviparous or ovoviviparous and are collectively known as livebearers.
Fish gonads are typically pairs of either ovaries or testes. Most fish are sexually dimorphic but some species are hermaphroditic or unisexual.
Invertebrates have an extremely diverse array of reproductive systems, the only commonality may be that they all lay eggs. Also, aside from cephalopods and arthropods, nearly all other invertebrates are hermaphroditic and exhibit external fertilization.
All cephalopods are sexually dimorphic and reproduce by laying eggs. Most cephalopods have semi-internal fertilization, in which the male places his gametes inside the female’s mantle cavity or pallial cavity to fertilize the ova found in the female’s single ovary. Likewise, male cephalopods have only a single testicle. In the female of most cephalopods the nidamental glands aid in the development of the egg.
In species where the hectocotylus is missing, the “penis” is long and able to extend beyond the mantle cavity and transfer the spermatophores directly to the female.
Arachnids may have one or two gonads, which are located in the abdomen. The genital opening is usually located on the underside of the second abdominal segment. In most species, the male transfers sperm to the female in a package, or spermatophore. Complex courtship rituals have evolved in many arachnids to ensure the safe delivery of the sperm to the female.
Arachnids usually lay yolky eggs, which hatch into immatures that resemble adults. Scorpions, however, are either ovoviviparous or viviparous, depending on species, and bear live young.
Reproductive system Plants (पौधों की प्रजनन प्रणाली)
Among all living organisms, flowers, which are the reproductive structures of angiosperms, are the most varied physically and show a correspondingly great diversity in methods of reproduction. Plants that are not flowering plants e.g. green algae, mosses, liverworts, hornworts, ferns and gymnosperms such as conifers, also have complex interplays between morphological adaptation and environmental factors in their sexual reproduction.
The breeding system, or how the sperm from one plant fertilizes the ovum of another, depends on the reproductive morphology and is the single most important determinant of the genetic structure of nonclonal plant populations.
Reproductive system Fungi (फंगी की प्रजनन प्रणाली)
Fungal reproduction is complex, reflecting the differences in lifestyles and genetic makeup within this diverse kingdom of organisms. Reproduction may occur in two well-differentiated stages within the life cycle of a species, the teleomorph, and the anamorph.
Environmental conditions trigger genetically determined developmental states that lead to the creation of specialized structures for sexual or asexual reproduction. These structures aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules.
Reproductive system Diseases (प्रजनन प्रणाली के रोग)
A reproductive system disease is any disease of the reproductive system, which includes:
Reproductive Tract Infection (RTI) are infections that affect the reproductive tract, which is part of the Reproductive System.
- For females, reproductive tract infections can affect the upper reproductive tract i.e. fallopian tubes, ovary, and uterus, and the lower reproductive tract i.e. vagina, cervix, and vulva.
- For males, these infections affect the penis, testicles, urethra or the vas deferens.
The three types of reproductive tract infections are endogenous infections, iatrogenic infections, and the more commonly known sexually transmitted infections.
Congenital abnormalities (पैदाइशी असामान्यता)
Examples of congenital abnormalities of the reproductive system include:
- Kallmann syndrome – Genetic disorder causing decreased functioning of the sex hormone-producing glands caused by a deficiency or both testes from the scrotum
- Androgen insensitivity syndrome – A genetic disorder causing people who are genetically male (i.e. XY chromosome pair) to develop sexually as a female due to an inability to utilize androgen
- Intersexuality – A person who has genitalia and/or other sexual traits that are not clearly male or female
Examples of cancers of the reproductive system include:
- Prostate cancer – Cancer of the prostate gland
- Breast cancer – Cancer of the mammary gland
- Ovarian cancer – Cancer of the ovary
- Penile cancer – Cancer of the penis
- Uterine cancer – Cancer of the uterus
- Testicular cancer – Cancer of the testicle/testes
- Cervical cancer – Cancer of the cervix
- Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
Examples of functional problems (कार्यात्मक समस्याओं के उदाहरण)
Examples of functional problems of the reproductive system include:
- Impotence – The inability of a male to produce or maintain an erection
- Hypogonadism – A lack of function of the gonads, in regards to either hormones or gamete production
- Ectopic pregnancy – When a fertilized ovum is implanted in any tissue other than the uterine wall
- Hypoactive sexual desire disorder – A low level of sexual desire and interest
- Female sexual arousal disorder – A condition of decreased, insufficient, or absent lubrication in females during sexual activity
- Premature ejaculation – A lack of voluntary control over ejaculation
- Erectile dysfunction
- Dysmenorrhea – is a medical condition of pain during menstruation that interferes with daily activities
It is also known that the disruption of the endocrine system by certain chemicals adversely affects the development of the reproductive system and can cause vaginal cancer. Many other reproductive diseases have also been linked to exposure to synthetic and environmental chemicals. Common chemicals with known links to reproductive disorders include lead, dioxins, and dioxin-like compounds, styrene, toluene, BPA (Bisphenol A) and pesticides.