The sexual response cycle (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र) is a four-stage model of physiological responses to sexual stimulation, which, in order of their occurrence, are the excitement, plateau, orgasmic, and resolution phases. However, sexual dysfunctions are the result of some inevitable problems. This physiological response model was first formulated by William H. Masters and Virginia E. Johnson, in their 1966 book Human Sexual Response. Since then, other human sexual response models have been formulated. Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System considers sex is the basic need of the humans, we appeal to our valuable readers to know about its technicality in depth.
Sexual response cycle: Excitement phase (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: उत्तेजना चरण)
The excitement phase is the first stage of the human sexual response cycle, which occurs as a result of physical or mental erotic stimuli, such as kissing, making out, or viewing erotic images, that leads to sexual arousal. During this stage, the body prepares for sexual intercourse, initially leading to the plateau phase. There is wide socio-cultural variation regarding preferences for the length of foreplay and the stimulation methods used. Physical and emotional interaction and stimulation of the erogenous zones during foreplay usually establishes at least some initial arousal.
Sexual response cycle: Excitement in males and females (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: पुरुषों और महिलाओं में उत्तेजना)
Among both sexes, the excitement phase results in an increase in heart rate, breathing rate, and a rise in blood pressure. A survey in 2006 found that sexual arousal in about 82% of young females and 52% of young males arise or is enhanced by direct stimulation of nipples, with only 7–8% reporting that it decreased their arousal.
During the female sex flush, pinkish spots develop under the breasts, then spread to the breasts, torso, face, hands, soles of the feet, and possibly over the entire body. Vasocongestion is also responsible for the darkening of the clitoris and the walls of the vagina during sexual arousal. During the male sex flush, the coloration of the skin develops less consistently than in the female, but typically starts with the upper abdomen, spreads across the chest, then continues to the neck, face, forehead, back, and sometimes, shoulders and forearms. The sex flush typically disappears soon after orgasm occurs, but this may take up to two hours or so and, sometimes, intense sweating will occur simultaneously. The flush usually diminishes in reverse of the order in which it appeared.
An increase in muscle tone of certain muscle groups, occurring voluntarily and involuntarily, begins during this phase among both sexes. Also, the external anal sphincter may contract randomly upon contact.
The excitement in males (पुरुषों में उत्तेजना)
In males, the beginning of the excitement phase is observed when the penis becomes partially or fully erect, often after only a few seconds of erotic stimulation. The erection may be partially lost and regained repeatedly during an extended excitement phase. Both testicles become drawn upward toward the perineum, notably in circumcised males where less skin is available to accommodate the erection. Also, the scrotum can tense and thicken during the erection process.
The excitement in females (महिलाओं में उत्तेजना)
In females, the excitement phase can last from several minutes to several hours. The onset of vasocongestion results in swelling of the woman’s clitoris, labia minor, and vagina. The muscle that surrounds the vaginal opening grows tighter and the uterus elevates and grows in size. The vaginal walls begin to produce a lubricating organic liquid. Meanwhile, the breasts increase slightly in size and nipples become hardened and erect.
Sexual response cycle: Plateau phase (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: पठार चरण)
The plateau phase is the period of sexual excitement prior to orgasm. The phase is characterized by an increased circulation and heart rate in both sexes, increased sexual pleasure with increased stimulation, and further increased muscle tension. Also, respiration continues at an elevated level. Both males and females may also begin to vocalize involuntarily at this stage. Prolonged time in the plateau phase without progression to the orgasmic phase may result in sexual frustration.
Plateau in males (पुरुषों में पठार चरण)
During this phase, the male urethral sphincter contracts (so as to prevent urine from mixing with semen, and to guard against retrograde ejaculation) and muscles at the base of the penis begin a steady rhythmic contraction. Males may start to secrete seminal fluid or pre-ejaculatory fluid and the testicles rise closer to the body.
Plateau in females (महिलाओं में पठार चरण)
The plateau stage in females is basically a continuation of the same changes evident in the excitement stage. The clitoris becomes extremely sensitive and withdraws slightly, and the Bartholin glands produce further lubrication. The tissues of the outer third of the vagina swell and the pubococcygeus muscle tighten, reducing the diameter of the opening of the vagina.
Sexual response cycle: Orgasm phase (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: संभोग चरण)
Orgasm is the conclusion of the plateau phase of the sexual response cycle and is experienced by both males and females. It is accompanied by quick cycles of muscle contraction in the lower pelvic muscles, which surround both the anus and the primary sexual organs. Women also experience uterine and vaginal contractions. Orgasms are often associated with other involuntary actions, including vocalizations and muscular spasms in other areas of the body and a generally euphoric sensation. Heart rate is increased even further.
Orgasm in males (पुरुषों में संभोग सुख)
In males, orgasm is usually associated with ejaculation. Each ejection is accompanied by continuous pulses of sexual pleasure, especially in the penis and loins. Other sensations may be felt strongly among the lower spine or lower back. The first and second convulsions are usually the most intense in sensation and produce the greatest quantity of semen. Thereafter, each contraction is associated with a diminishing volume of semen and a milder sensation of pleasure.
Orgasm in females (महिलाओं में संभोग सुख)
Orgasms in females can vary widely from female to female. The overall sensation is similar to that of the male orgasm. They are commonly associated with an increase in vaginal lubrication, a tightening of the vaginal walls, and overall pleasure.
Sexual response cycle: Resolution phase (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: संकल्प चरण)
The resolution phase occurs after orgasm and allows the muscles to relax, blood pressure to drop, and the body to slow down from its excited state. The refractory period, which is part of the resolution phase, is the time frame in which usually a male is unable to orgasm again, though females can also experience a refractory period.
Resolution in males (पुरुषों में संकल्प)
Masters and Johnson described the two-stage detumescence of the penis: In the first stage, the penis decreases from its erect state to about 50 percent larger than its flaccid state. This occurs during the refractory period. In the second stage, the penis decreases in size and returns to being flaccid. It is generally impossible for males to achieve orgasm during the refractory period.
Resolution in females (महिलाओं में संकल्प)
According to Masters and Johnson, females have the ability to orgasm again very quickly, as long as they have effective stimulation. As a result, they are able to have multiple orgasms in a relatively short period of time. Though generally reported that females do not experience a refractory period and thus can experience an additional orgasm, or multiple orgasms.
Soon after the first, some sources state that males and females experience a refractory period because females may also experience a period after orgasm in which further sexual stimulation does not produce excitement. For some females, the clitoris is very sensitive after climax, making additional stimulation initially painful. After the initial orgasm, subsequent orgasms for females may also be stronger or more pleasurable as the stimulation accumulates.
Sexual response cycle: Sexual dysfunctions (यौन प्रतिक्रिया चक्र: यौन रोग)
The human sexual response cycle sets the foundation for studying and categorizing sexual dysfunctions in males and females. There are four main categories of sexual dysfunctions:
- Desire disorders
- Arousal disorders
- Orgasm disorders, and
- Sexual pain disorders.
They are still categorized as such in the DSM-IV-TR. Recent research, however, suggests that the current model of sexual response needs to be revised to better treat these dysfunctions.
Sexual dysfunction: Causes (यौन रोग: कारण)
Sexual dysfunction occurs when you have a problem that prevents you from wanting or enjoying sexual activity. It can happen anytime. Males and females of all ages experience sexual dysfunction, although the chances increase as you age.
Stress is a common cause of sexual dysfunction. Other causes include:
Sexual dysfunction in males: Erectile dysfunction (पुरुषों में यौन रोग: नपुंसकता)
Erectile dysfunction occurs when a man cannot achieve or maintain an erection appropriate for intercourse. This can occur due to:
- A problem with blood flow
- A nerve disorder
- An injury to the penis
- Psychological problems, like stress or depression
- Relationship issues
- Peyronie’s disease
- Chronic illness
- Some medications
Sexual dysfunction in males: Ejaculation disorders (पुरुषों में यौन रोग: स्खलन विकार)
Premature ejaculation is ejaculation that happens before or immediately after penetration. This is often a consequence of performance anxiety. It can also be due to:
- Other psychological stressors
- Sexual inhibitions
- Nerve damage
- Spinal cord damage
- Certain medications
Impaired ejaculation occurs when you can’t ejaculate at all. Some men, particularly those who have diabetic neuropathy, experience retrograde ejaculation. During orgasm, ejaculation enters the bladder instead of exiting out of the penis. Although this doesn’t cause major medical issues, it can impair fertility. You should see your doctor about it if you have it.
Sexual dysfunction in females: Pain and discomfort (महिलाओं में यौन रोग: दर्द और असुविधा)
Many things can cause pain during sexual activity. Inadequate lubrication and tense vaginal muscles make penetration painful. Involuntary vaginal muscle spasms, or vaginismus, can make intercourse hurt. These may be symptoms of the neurological, urinary tract, or bowel disorders.
The hormonal changes of menopause can make intercourse uncomfortable. A drop in estrogen levels can result in thinning of the skin in the genital area. It can also thin the vaginal lining and decrease lubrication.
Sexual dysfunction in females: Difficulty having an orgasm (महिलाओं में यौन रोग: एक संभोग सुख होने में कठिनाई)
Stress and fatigue are enemies of orgasm. So are pain and discomfort during sexual activity. Females may be unable to achieve orgasm when their sex drive is low or when hormones are out of whack. According to Harvard Medical School, the norm for female sexual response isn’t easily measurable and is based on quality.
When to see Doctor (डॉक्टर को कब देखना है)
If the situation doesn’t improve or you suspect a physical reason, it’s time to see your doctor. Be prepared to give a complete medical history, including a list of prescription and over-the-counter medications. Tell your doctor the specifics of your problem.
Your doctor will begin with a physical exam. Depending on the outcome, this may be followed by diagnostic testing. If they don’t find a physical cause, consider seeing a therapist.