Saturated fat (संपृक्त चरबी) is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. Fats are made of long chains of carbon atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds and others are linked by double bonds. Double bonds can react with hydrogen to form single bonds. They are called saturated because the second bond is broken and each half of the bond is attached to (saturated with) a hydrogen atom. Most animal fats are saturated. Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System being more conscious about health, we appeal readers to know about saturated fat in detail.
The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Saturated fats tend to have higher melting points than their corresponding unsaturated fat, leading to the popular understanding that saturated fat tend to be solids at room temperatures, while unsaturated fat tend to be liquid at room temperature with varying degrees of viscosity (meaning both saturated and unsaturated fats are found to be liquid at body temperature).
Saturated fat Definition (संपृक्त चरबी की परिभाषा)
A high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds, considered to be less healthy in the diet than unsaturated fat.
Saturated fat Profiles (संपृक्त चरबी का रेखा-चित्र)
While nutrition labels regularly combine them, the saturated fatty acids appear in different proportions among food groups. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in “tropical” oils:
- Palm kernel
- Dairy products
The saturated fat is found in:
Examples of saturated fatty acids (संपृक्त चरबी के उदाहरण)
Some common examples of fatty acids:
- Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter)
- Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk)
- Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms (contained in cow’s milk and dairy products)
- Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms (contained in palm oil and meat)
- Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms (also contained in meat and cocoa butter)
Saturated fat chart
|As weight percent (%) of total fat|
|Walnuts dry roasted||09||23||63|
|Sweets and baked goods|
|Safflower oil, linoleic||06||14||75|
|Safflower oil, high oleic||06||75||14|
|Rice bran oil||25||38||37|
|Pecans dry roasted||08||62||25|
|Peanut dry roasted||14||50||31|
|Palm kernel oil||86||12||02|
|Margarine, light tub||19||46||33|
|Macadamia dry roasted||15||79||02|
|Ice cream, light||62||29||04|
|Ice cream, gourmet||62||29||04|
|Hot dog, turkey||28||40||22|
|Hot dog, beef||42||48||05|
|Grilled chicken sandwich||26||42||20|
|Fish, orange roughy||23||15||46|
|Fats added during cooking or at the table|
|Egg yolk fat||36||44||16|
|Dressing, light Italian||14||24||58|
|Dressing, blue cheese||16||54||25|
|Cookie, oatmeal raisin||22||47||27|
|Cookie, chocolate chip||35||42||18|
|Cheeseburger, fast food||43||40||07|
|Cashews dry roasted||20||59||17|
|Candy, fruit chews||14||44||38|
|Candy, chocolate bar||59||33||03|
|Burger, fast food||36||44||06|
|Breaded chicken sandwich||20||39||32|
|Almonds dry roasted||09||65||21|
Saturated fat & Health Hazards (संपृक्त चरबी का स्वास्थ्य को खतरा)
Cardiovascular disease (हृदय रोग)
There are strong, consistent, and graded relationships between saturated fat intake, blood cholesterol levels, and the epidemic of cardiovascular disease. The relationships are accepted as causal.
Many health authorities such as the American Dietetic Association, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, among others, advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization in May 2015 recommends switching from saturated to unsaturated fats.
A small, limited number of systematic reviews have examined the relationship between saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and have come to different conclusions. However, these rely on observational studies and can therefore not be used to establish cause and effect relationships.
While many studies have found that including polyunsaturated fats in the diet in place of saturated fats produces more beneficial CVD outcomes, the effects of substituting monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates are unclear.
The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease.
Abnormal blood lipid levels, that is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, “good” cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
Saturated fat effects Cancer (संपृक्त चरबी का प्रभाव कैंसर)
Breast cancer (स्तन कैंसर)
A meta-analysis published in 2003 found a significant positive relationship in both control and cohort studies between saturated fat and breast cancer. However, two subsequent reviews have found weak or insignificant associations of saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk, and note the prevalence of confounding factors.
Colorectal cancer (कोलोरेक्टल कैंसर)
One review found limited evidence for a positive relationship between consuming animal fat and the incidence of colorectal cancer.
Ovarian cancer (अंडाशयी कैंसर)
Meta-analyses of clinical studies found evidence for increased risk of ovarian cancer by high consumption of saturated fat.
Prostate cancer (प्रोस्टेट कैंसर)
Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid and palmitic acid and dietary myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha-tocopherol supplementation are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. These associations may, however, reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the pre-cancer cases and controls.
Saturated fat effects Bones (संपृक्त चरबी से प्रभावशाली हड्डियाँ)
Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake and that men may be particularly vulnerable.
Saturated fat Dietary recommendations (संपृक्त चरबी आहार की सिफारिशें)
Recommendations to reduce or limit dietary intake of saturated fats are made by the:
- World Health Organization
- American Heart Association of Health
- US Department of Health and Human Services
- UK Food Standards Agency
- Australian Department of Health and Aging
- Singapore Government Health Promotion Board
- Indian Government Citizens Health Portal
- New Zealand Ministry of Health
- Food and Drugs Board of Ghana
- Republic of Guyana Ministry of Health
- Hong Kong’s Centre for Food Safety.
The United Kingdom, National Health Service claims the majority of British people eat too much-saturated fat. People are advised to cut down on saturated fat and read labels on the food they buy.
In a 2017 comprehensive review of the literature and clinical trials, the American Heart Association published a recommendation that saturated fat intake be reduced or replaced by products containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, a dietary adjustment that could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30%.
Molecular description (आणविक विवरण)
The two-dimensional illustration has implicit hydrogen atoms bonded to each of the carbon atoms in the polycarbonate tail of the myristic acid molecule.
Carbon atoms are also implicitly drawn, as they are portrayed as intersections between two straight lines. “Saturated,” in general, refers to a maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon of the polycarbonate tail as allowed by the Octet Rule. This also means that only single bonds will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail.