The Mediterranean diet (भूमध्य आहार) is a diet inspired by the eating habits of Greece and Italy in the 1960s. The principal aspects of this diet include proportionally high consumption of olive oil, legumes, unrefined cereals, fruits, and vegetables, moderate to high consumption of fish, moderate consumption of dairy products (mostly as cheese and yogurt), moderate wine consumption, and low consumption of non-fish meat products. Having noticed numerous health benefits, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System appeals to our readers to read the article for making life glorious.
Mediterranean diet Pyramid (भूमध्य आहार पिरामिड)
Mediterranean diet recipes (भूमध्य आहार व्यंजन)
The Mediterranean diet has been wildly popular for decades, and for good reason, it may improve heart health and protect against certain cancers and neurological diseases. Research shows it could benefit your waistline, and the U.S. News & World Report ranked the Mediterranean Diet as the best overall diet, tied with the DASH Diet.
Eat seasonal produce (मौसमी उत्पाद खाएं)
While Mediterranean-style eating includes having more meatless meals and plant-based proteins, it also calls for consuming 7 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. Tossing a handful of blueberries into oatmeal, adding a couple of slices of tomato to lunch sandwich, snacking on a piece of fruit, and microwaving some frozen veggies for a dinner side apparently wasn’t cutting it.
To up your veggie intake, Jennifer McDaniel, MS, RDN, co-author of the book and owner of McDaniel Nutrition Therapy, says to choose in-season produce when it’s most flavorful. She also recommends making a meal out of sides.
Omega-3 (ओमेगा -3)
McDaniel adds that getting the recommended amount of omega-3 fatty acids without eating fish “is a tougher feat.” While ground flaxseed, flaxseed oil, walnuts, chia seeds, and seaweed all contain the omega-3 ALA, this fatty acid isn’t efficiently converted to the more potent omega-3 fats EPA and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). In other words, you’d have to eat a lot of ALA to reap the same health benefits. McDaniel recommends supplementing a veggie-based diet with fish oil or an algal-derived source of DHA/EPA.
“Other nutrients that might need particular attention in a vegetarian diet include iron, zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin B12,” says McDaniel. However, “a well-planned vegetarian-Mediterranean diet that includes a variety of food groups should provide sufficient amounts of these essential nutrients.”
McDaniel does advise her clients to have their vitamin D levels checked by their doctors, as those levels “tend to come up short,” even for meat-eaters.
Balanced diet (संतुलित आहार)
Veggies should be the star of the show on a Mediterranean Diet, and McDaniel explains that half a vegetarian’s plate should still include veggies; the other half should be balanced with a mixture of whole grains and plant-based proteins, such as farro and white beans.
Combining a variety of plant-based protein sources, such as whole grains and legumes, over the course of a day or two provides the “right mix” of the 20 amino acids or the building blocks of protein, notes McDaniel. She also recommends the inclusion of healthy fat, like olive oil.
It’s important to note that the Mediterranean diet is partly about lifestyle. It’s enjoying meals with family and friends and drinking that glass of red wine if you’re so inclined. But many folks in Mediterranean cultures take their meals late, often after 10 p.m. They also don’t snack the way we do.
Mediterranean diet Meal plan (भूमध्य आहार भोजन योजना)
A 7-day sample Mediterranean diet Meal plan:
|1||Breakfast||Greek yogurt topped with berries and a drizzle of honey|
|Snack||Handful of almonds|
|Lunch||Tuna on a bed of greens with a vinaigrette|
|Snack||A small bowl of olives|
|Dinner||Small chicken breast over a warm grain salad made with sautéed zucchini, tomato, and farro|
|2||Breakfast||Whole-grain toast with a soft-boiled egg and a piece of fruit|
|Snack||Handful of pistachios|
|Lunch||Lentil salad with roasted red peppers, sun-dried tomatoes, capers, and a balsamic vinaigrette|
|Snack||Hummus with dipping veggies|
|Dinner||Salmon with quinoa and sautéed garlicky greens|
|3||Breakfast||Whipped ricotta topped with walnuts and fruit|
|Lunch||Tabouli salad with whole-grain pita|
|Dinner||Roasted chicken, gnocchi, and a large salad with vinaigrette|
|4||Breakfast||Fruit with a couple of slices of Brie|
|Snack||Cashews and dried fruit|
|Lunch||Vegetable soup with whole-grain roll|
|Snack||Tasting plate with olives, a couple of slices of cheese, cucumbers, and cherry tomatoes|
|Dinner||Whitefish cooked in olive oil and garlic, spiralized zucchini, and a sweet potato|
|5||Breakfast||Omelet made with tomatoes, fresh herbs, and olives|
|Snack||A couple of dates stuffed with almond butter|
|Lunch||A salad topped with white beans, veggies, olives, and a small piece of chicken|
|Snack||A peach and yogurt|
|Dinner||Grilled shrimp skewers with roasted Brussels sprouts|
|6||Breakfast||Eggs scrambled with veggies and chives and topped with feta with a slice of whole-grain bread|
|Lunch||A quinoa bowl topped with sliced chicken, feta, and veggies|
|Snack||Hummus with veggies|
|Dinner||Grilled seafood, roasted fennel and broccoli, arugula salad, and quinoa|
|Snack||Handful of berries|
|Lunch||A plate of smoked salmon, capers, lemon, whole grain crackers, and raw veggies|
|Snack||Mashed avocado with lemon and salt, with cucumbers for dipping|
|Dinner||Pasta with red sauce and mussels|
Mediterranean diet Health effects (भूमध्य आहार स्वास्थ्य प्रभाव)
A 2017 review found evidence that the practice of a Mediterranean diet could lead to a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases, overall cancer incidence, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and early death. A 2018 review showed that the practice of the Mediterranean diet may improve overall health statuses, such as the reduced risk of non-communicable diseases, reduced total costs of living, and reduced costs for national healthcare. A 2016 review found similar weight loss as other diets.
Heart disease (दिल की बीमारी)
A 2013 Cochrane review found limited evidence that a Mediterranean diet favorably affects cardiovascular risk factors. A meta-analysis in 2013 compared Mediterranean, vegan, vegetarian, low-glycemic index, low-carbohydrate, high-fiber, and high-protein diets with control diets.
The research concluded that Mediterranean, low-carbohydrate, low-glycemic index, and high-protein diets are effective in improving markers of risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, while there was limited evidence for an effect of vegetarian diets on glycemic control and lipid levels unrelated to weight loss.
Newer reviews have reached similar conclusions about the ability of a Mediterranean diet to improve cardiovascular risk factors such as high blood pressure and other cardiovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet often is cited as beneficial for being low in saturated fat and high in monounsaturated fat and dietary fiber.
In 2014, two meta-analyses found that the Mediterranean diet was associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes, findings similar to those of a 2017 review.
A meta-analysis in 2008 found that strictly following the Mediterranean diet was correlated with a decreased risk of dying from cancer by 6%. A 2017 review found a decreased rate of cancer.
Another 2014 systematic review and meta-analysis found that adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with a decreased risk of death from cancer. There is preliminary evidence that regular consumption of olive oil may lower the risk of developing cancer.
Cognitive ability (संज्ञानात्मक क्षमता)
A 2016 systematic review found a relation between greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet and better cognitive performance; it is unclear if the relationship is causal.
According to a 2013 systematic review, greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet is correlated with a lower risk of Alzheimer’s disease and slower cognitive decline.
Major depressive disorder (प्रमुख अवसादग्रस्तता विकार)
There is a correlation between adherence to a healthy diet, like the Mediterranean diet, and a lower risk of depression. Studies on which these correlations are made, are observational and do not prove cause and effect.
Gluten (आटे का लस)
As the Mediterranean diet usually includes products containing gluten like pasta and bread, increasing the use of the diet may have contributed to the growing rate of gluten-related disorders.
Dietary components (आहार के घटक)
There is a huge variety of “Mediterranean diets” in the different countries and among the individual populations of the Mediterranean basin, due to ethical, cultural, economic and religious diversities.
However, the Mediterranean diet as defined by nutritionists generally includes the following components, which are not typical of all the Mediterranean basin:
- High intakes of olive oil (as the principal source of fat), vegetables (including leafy green vegetables), fresh fruits (consumed as desserts or snacks), cereals (mostly whole grains), nuts and legumes.
- Moderate intakes of fish and other seafood, poultry, dairy products (principally cheese and yogurt) and red wine.
- Low intakes of eggs, red meat, processed meat, and sweets.
In contrast to the dietary recommendation, olive oil is not the staple fat in much of the Mediterranean basin: in northern and central Italy, lard and butter are commonly used in cooking, and olive oil is reserved for dressing salads and cooked vegetables; in both North Africa and the Middle East, sheep’s tail fat and rendered butter (samna) are traditional staple fats.
Mediterranean diet comparative chart (भूमध्य आहार तुलनात्मक चार्ट)
and Trust (2009)
|Olive oil||Every meal||Every meal||Main added lipid|
|Vegetables||Every meal||≥2 servings every meal||6 serv./day|
|Fruits||Every meal||1–2 serv. every meal||3 serv./day|
|Bread/cereals||Every meal||1–2 serv. every meal||8 serv./day|
|Legumes||Every meal||≥2 serv./week||3–4 serv./week|
|Nuts||Every meal||1–2 serv./day||3–4 serv./week|
|Fish/seafood||≥2 serv./week||≥2 serv./week||5–6 serv./week|
|Eggs||Moderate portions, daily to weekly||2–4 serv./week||3 serv./week|
|Poultry||Moderate portions, daily to weekly||2 serv./week||4 serv./week|
|Dairy foods||Moderate portions, daily to weekly||2 serv./day||2 serv./day|
|Red meat||Less often||<2 serv./week||4 serv./month|
|Sweets||Less often||<2 serv./week||3 serv./week|
|Red wine||In moderation||In moderation and respecting social beliefs||Daily, in moderation|
|Each serving is: bread 25 g., potato 100 g., cooked pasta 50–60 g., vegetables 100 g., apple 80 g., banana 60 g., orange 100 g., melon 200 g., grapes 30 g., milk or yogurt 1 cup, 1 egg, meat 60 g., cooked dry beans 100 g.|
Mediterranean diet History (भूमध्य आहार का इतिहास)
The concept of a Mediterranean diet was developed to reflect “food patterns typical of Crete, much of the rest of Greece, and Italy in the early 1960s”. Although it was first publicized in 1975 by the American biologist Ancel Keys and chemist Margaret Keys (his wife and collaborator), the Mediterranean diet failed to gain widespread recognition until the 1990s.
The Mediterranean diet is based on a paradox: although the people living in Mediterranean countries tend to consume relatively high amounts of fat, they have far lower rates of cardiovascular disease than in countries like the United States where similar levels of fat consumption are found.
When Ancel Keys and his team of researchers studied and characterized the Mediterranean diet and compared it with the eating habits of the US and the most developed countries during that period, some identified it as the “Diet of the Poor”.
A list of Mediterranean countries (भूमध्य देशों की सूची)
While Portugal is considered a Mediterranean country, and Portuguese people are considered as Mediterranean people, in terms of culture, history, language, and climate, Portugal does not border the Mediterranean sea.
Below is the list of the countries and territories bordering the Mediterranean, listed clockwise from Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula:
- Gibraltar (a British Overseas Territory)
- Malta (island nation)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina
- Cyprus (island nation; includes the British Overseas Territory of Akrotiri and Dhekelia and Northern Cyprus)
- Palestine (Gaza Strip)