The circulatory system (संचार प्रणाली) also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis. Many diseases affect the circulatory system. This includes cardiovascular disease, affecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic disease affecting the lymphatic system. Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System considers that our valuable readers to get well-acquainted with their own circulatory system and diseases associated with it.
Circulatory system diagram (संचार प्रणाली आरेख)
Circulatory system organs (संचार प्रणाली के अंग)
Cardiovascular system (हृदय प्रणाली)
The essential components of the human cardiovascular system are the heart, blood and blood vessels. It includes the pulmonary circulation, a “loop” through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a loop through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood. The systemic circulation can also be seen to function in two parts – a macrocirculation and a microcirculation. An average adult contains five to six quarts (roughly 4.7 to 5.7 liters) of blood, accounting for approximately 7% of their total body weight.
The cardiovascular systems of humans are closed, meaning that the blood never leaves the network of blood vessels.
Oxygenated blood enters the systemic circulation when leaving the left ventricle, through the aortic semilunar valve. The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery. The aorta arches and gives branches supplying the upper part of the body after passing through the aortic opening of the diaphragm at the level of thoracic ten vertebra, it enters the abdomen.
Later it descends down and supplies branches to abdomen, pelvis, perineum and the lower limbs. The walls of aorta are elastic. This elasticity helps to maintain blood pressure throughout the body. When the aorta receives almost five liters of blood from the heart, it recoils and is responsible for pulsating blood pressure. Moreover, as aorta branches into smaller arteries, their elasticity goes on decreasing and their compliance goes on increasing.
Arteries branch into small passages called arterioles and then into the capillaries. The capillaries merge to bring blood into the venous system.
Capillaries merge into venules, which merge into veins. The venous system feeds into the two major veins: the superior vena cava – which mainly drains tissues above the heart – and the inferior vena cava – which mainly drains tissues below the heart. These two large veins empty into the right atrium of the heart.
Portal veins (पोर्टल नस)
The general rule is that arteries from the heart branch out into capillaries, which collect into veins leading back to the heart. Portal veins are a slight exception to this. In humans the only significant example is the hepatic portal vein which combines from capillaries around the gastrointestinal tract where the blood absorbs the various products of digestion; rather than leading directly back to the heart, the hepatic portal vein branches into a second capillary system in the liver.
The heart pumps oxygenated blood to the body and deoxygenated blood to the lungs. In the human heart, there is one atrium and one ventricle for each circulation, and with both a systemic and a pulmonary circulation there are four chambers in total: left atrium, left ventricle, right atrium, and right ventricle. The right atrium is the upper chamber of the right side of the heart.
Coronary vessels (कोरोनरी वाहिकाएँ)
The heart is supplied with oxygen and nutrients through a small loop of the systemic circulation, which derives very little from the blood contained within the four chambers. The coronary circulation system provides a blood supply to the heart muscle itself. The coronary circulation begins near the origin of the aorta by two coronary arteries: the right coronary artery and the left coronary artery.
After nourishing the heart muscle, blood returns through the coronary veins into the coronary sinus and from this one into the right atrium. However, the backflow of blood through its opening during atrial systole is prevented by the Thebesian valve. The smallest cardiac veins drain directly into the heart chambers.
The circulatory system of the lungs is the portion of the cardiovascular system in which oxygen-depleted blood is pumped away from the heart, via the pulmonary artery, to the lungs and returned, oxygenated, to the heart via the pulmonary vein.
Systemic circulation (प्रणालीगत संचलन)
Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system. It transports oxygenated blood away from the heart through the aorta from the left ventricle. The blood that previously deposited from pulmonary circulation to the rest of the body, returns oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart.
The brain has a dual blood supply that comes from arteries at its front and back. The anterior circulation arises from the internal carotid arteries and supplies the front of the brain. The posterior circulation arises from the vertebral arteries and supplies the back of the brain and brainstem. The circulation from the front and the back join together at the Circle of Willis.
The renal circulation receives around 20% of the cardiac output. It branches from the abdominal aorta and returns blood to the ascending vena cava. It is the blood supply to the kidneys and contains many specialized blood vessels.
The lymphatic system (लसीका प्रणाली)
The lymphatic system is part of the circulatory system. It is a network of lymphatic vessels and lymph capillaries, lymph nodes and organs, and lymphatic tissues and circulating lymph. One of its major functions is to carry the lymph, draining and returning interstitial fluid back towards the heart for return to the cardiovascular system, by emptying into the lymphatic ducts. Its other main function is in the adaptive immune system.
Circulatory system Development (संचार प्रणाली का विकास)
The development of the circulatory system starts with vasculogenesis in the embryo. The human arterial and venous systems develop from different areas in the embryo. The arterial system develops mainly from the aortic arches, six pairs of arches which develop on the upper part of the embryo. The venous system arises from three bilateral veins during weeks 4 – 8 of embryogenesis. Fetal circulation begins within the 8th week of development.
Heart Arteries (हृदय धमनिया)
The human arterial system originates from the aortic arches and from the dorsal aortae starting from week 4 of embryonic life. The first and second aortic arches regress and form only the maxillary arteries and stapedial arteries respectively. The arterial system itself arises from aortic arches 3, 4 and 6.
The dorsal aortae, present on the dorsal side of the embryo, are initially present on both sides of the embryo. They later fuse to form the basis for the aorta itself. Approximately thirty smaller arteries branch from this at the back and sides. These branches form the intercostal arteries, arteries of the arms and legs, lumbar arteries and the lateral sacral arteries. Branches to the sides of the aorta will form the definitive renal, suprarenal and gonadal arteries. Finally, branches at the front of the aorta consist of the vitelline arteries and umbilical arteries.
Heart Veins (हृदय की नसें)
The human venous system develops mainly from the vitelline veins, the umbilical veins, and the cardinal veins, all of which empty into the sinus venosus.
Circulatory system Function (संचार प्रणाली का कार्य)
Cardiovascular system (हृदय प्रणाली)
About 98.5% of the oxygen in a sample of arterial blood in a healthy human. The hemoglobin molecule is the primary transporter of oxygen in mammals and many other species.
Circulatory system Clinical significance (संचार प्रणाली नैदानिक महत्व)
Many diseases affect the circulatory system. These include a number of cardiovascular diseases, affecting the cardiovascular system, and lymphatic diseases affecting the lymphatic system. Cardiologists are medical professionals who specialize in the heart, and cardiothoracic surgeons specialize in operating on the heart and its surrounding areas. Vascular surgeons focus on other parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiovascular disease (हृदय रोग)
Diseases affecting the cardiovascular system are called cardiovascular disease.
The major cardiovascular disease involves the creation of a clot, called a thrombus, which can originate in veins or arteries. Thrombosis mostly occurs in the legs, is one cause of clots in the veins of the legs, particularly when a person has been stationary for a long time. These clots may embolism, meaning travel to another location in the body. The results of this may include pulmonary embolus, transient ischaemic attacks, or stroke.
Cardiovascular diseases may also be congenital in nature, such as heart defects or persistent fetal circulation, where the circulatory changes that are supposed to happen after birth do not. Not all congenital changes to the circulatory system are associated with diseases, a large number are anatomical variations.
Circulatory system Diseases (संचार प्रणाली के रोग)
Diseases that can affect the circulatory system include:
- Heart attack
- Mitral valve prolapse
- A Mitral valve regurgitation
- Mitral stenosis
- Angina pectoris
- Arrhythmia and dysrhythmia
- Cardiac Ischemia
- High cholesterol
- Heart failure
- High blood pressure (hypertension)
- Peripheral artery disease (PAD)
- Venous thromboembolism (VTE)
- Aortic aneurysms
Tips for healthy Circulatory system (स्वस्थ संचार प्रणाली के लिए युक्तियाँ)
- Maintain a healthy weight
- Don’t smoke
- Exercise a minimum of 30 minutes a day, most days of the week
- Maintain a healthy, low-fat, low-cholesterol diet with more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
- Avoid trans fats and saturated fats, which are often found in processed foods and fast food
- Limit salt and alcohol intake
- Use relaxation and self-care to reduce stress