The brain (मस्तिष्क) is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals. The brain is located in the head, usually close to the sensory organs for senses such as vision. The brain is the most complex organ in a vertebrate’s body. In a human, the cerebral cortex contains approximately 14–16 billion neurons, and the estimated number of neurons in the cerebellum is 55–70 billion. Each neuron is connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. Considering the complexity and sensitivity, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System has brought very simple methods for better function of the brain. Hence, know brain anatomy, physiology, how to develop the brain, brain function, and free Siddha energy remedies without money and medicines.
Brain Definition (मस्तिष्क की परिभाषा)
The brain is an organ of soft nervous tissue contained in the skull of vertebrates, functioning as the coordinating center of sensation and intellectual and nervous activity.
Brain Anatomy (मस्तिष्क की शारीरिक रचना)
The shape and size of the brain vary greatly between species, and identifying common features is often difficult. Nevertheless, there are a number of principles of brain architecture that apply across a wide range of species. Some aspects of brain structure are common to almost the entire range of animal species; others distinguish advanced brains from more primitive ones or distinguish vertebrates from invertebrates.
Cellular structure (सेलुलर संरचना)
The brains of all species are composed primarily of two broad classes of cells:
- Glial cells
Glial cells come in several types and perform a number of critical functions, including structural support, metabolic support, insulation, and guidance of development.
Neurons are usually considered the most important cells in the brain. The property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. They send these signals by means of an axon, which is a thin protoplasmic fiber that extends from the cell body and projects, usually with numerous branches, to other areas, sometimes nearby, sometimes in distant parts of the brain or body.
Evolution (क्रमागत उन्नति)
This category includes:
- Numerous types of worms
The first vertebrates appeared over 500 million years ago, during the Cambrian period, and may have resembled the modern hagfish in form. Sharks appeared about 450 million years ago, amphibians about 400 million years ago, reptiles about 350 million years ago, and mammals about 200 million years ago.
Each species has an equally long evolutionary history, but the brains of modern hagfishes, lampreys, sharks, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals show a gradient of size and complexity that roughly follows the evolutionary sequence.
All of these brains contain the same set of basic anatomical components, but many are rudimentary in the hagfish, whereas in mammals the foremost part is greatly elaborated and expanded.
The most obvious difference between the brains of mammals and other vertebrates is in terms of size. On average, a mammal has a brain roughly twice as large as that of a bird of the same body size, and ten times as large as that of a reptile of the same body size.
Primates (नर वानर)
The brains of humans and other primates contain the same structures as the brains of other mammals but are generally larger in proportion to body size. The encephalization quotient (EQ) is used to compare brain sizes across species. It takes into account the nonlinearity of the brain-to-body relationship.
Humans have an average EQ in the 7-to-8 range, while most other primates have an EQ in the 2-to-3 range. Dolphins have values higher than those of primates other than humans, but nearly all other mammals have EQ values that are substantially lower.
Most of the enlargement of the primate brain comes from a massive expansion of the cerebral cortex, especially the prefrontal cortex and the parts of the cortex involved in vision. The visual processing network of primates includes at least 30 distinguishable brain areas, with a complex web of interconnections. The prefrontal cortex carries out functions that include:
- Working memory
- Executive control
It takes up a much larger proportion of the brain for primates than for other species, and an especially large fraction of the human brain.
Brain Development (मस्तिष्क में वृद्धि)
The brain develops in an intricately orchestrated sequence of stages. It changes in shape from a simple swelling at the front of the nerve cord in the earliest embryonic stages, to a complex array of areas and connections. Neurons are created in special zones that contain stem cells and then migrate through the tissue to reach their ultimate locations.
Once neurons have positioned themselves, their axons sprout and navigate through the brain, branching and extending as they go, until the tips reach their targets and form synaptic connections.
Brain Physiology (मस्तिष्क का शरीर क्रिया विज्ञान)
The functions of the brain depend on the ability of neurons to transmit electrochemical signals to other cells, and their ability to respond appropriately to electrochemical signals received from other cells. The electrical properties of neurons are controlled by a wide variety of biochemical and metabolic processes, most notably the interactions between neurotransmitters and receptors that take place at synapses.
Neurotransmitters and receptors (न्यूरोट्रांसमीटर और रिसेप्टर्स)
Neurotransmitters are chemicals that are released at synapses when an action potential activates them—neurotransmitters attach themselves to receptor molecules on the membrane of the synapse’s target cell, and thereby alter the electrical or chemical properties of the receptor molecules. With few exceptions, each neuron in the brain releases the same chemical neurotransmitter, or combination of neurotransmitters, at all the synaptic connections it makes with other neurons; this rule is known as Dale’s principle.
A neuron can be characterized by the neurotransmitters that it releases. The great majority of psychoactive drugs exert their effects by altering specific neurotransmitter systems. This applies to drugs such as cannabinoids, nicotine, heroin, cocaine, alcohol, fluoxetine, chlorpromazine, and many others.
The two neurotransmitters that are used most widely in the vertebrate brain are glutamate, which almost always exerts excitatory effects on target neurons, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which is almost always inhibitory. Neurons can be found in nearly every part of the brain.
There are dozens of other chemical neurotransmitters that are used in more limited areas of the brain, often areas dedicated to a particular function.
Brain Electrical Activity (मस्तिष्क की विद्युत गतिविधि)
As a side effect of the electrochemical processes used by neurons for signaling, brain tissue generates electric fields when it is active. When large numbers of neurons show synchronized activity, the electric fields that they generate can be large enough to detect outside the skull, using electroencephalography (EEG) or magnetoencephalography (MEG).
During an epileptic seizure, the brain’s inhibitory control mechanisms fail to function and electrical activity rises to pathological levels, producing EEG traces that show large wave and spike patterns not seen in a healthy brain. Relating these population-level patterns to the computational functions of individual neurons is a major focus of current research in neurophysiology.
Brain Metabolism (मस्तिष्क का चयापचय)
All vertebrates have a blood-brain barrier that allows metabolism inside the brain to operate differently from metabolism in other parts of the body. Glial cells play a major role in brain metabolism by controlling the chemical composition of the fluid that surrounds neurons, including levels of ions and nutrients.
The brain typically gets most of its energy from oxygen-dependent metabolism of glucose (i.e., blood sugar), but ketones provide a major alternative source, together with contributions from medium-chain fatty acids, lactate, acetate, and possibly amino acids.
Brain Function (मस्तिष्क का कार्य)
The brain collects information from the sense organs. The brain processes the raw data to extract information about the structure of the environment. Next, it combines the processed information with information about the current needs and with the memory of past circumstances. Finally, on the basis of the results, it generates motor response patterns. These signal-processing tasks require an intricate interplay between a variety of functional subsystems.
The human brain is provided with information about:
- Chemical composition of the atmosphere
- Head orientation
- Limb position
- Chemical composition of the bloodstream, and more
In other animals, additional senses are present, such as the infrared heat-sense of snakes, the magnetic field sense of some birds, or the electric field sense of some types of fish.
Motor control (मोटर नियंत्रण)
Motor systems are areas of the brain that are involved in initiating body movements, that is, in activating muscles. Except for the muscles that control the eye, which is driven by nuclei in the midbrain, all the voluntary muscles in the body are directly innervated by motor neurons in the spinal cord and hindbrain.
The intrinsic spinal circuits implement many reflex responses and contain pattern generators for rhythmic movements such as walking or swimming. The descending connections from the brain allow for more sophisticated control.
|Ventral horn||Spinal cord||Contains motor neurons that directly activate muscles|
|Oculomotor nuclei||Midbrain||Contains motor neurons that directly activate the eye muscles|
|Cerebellum||Hindbrain||Calibrates precision and timing of movements|
|Basal ganglia||Forebrain||Action selection on the basis of motivation|
|Motor cortex||Frontal lobe||Direct cortical activation of spinal motor circuits|
|Premotor cortex||Frontal lobe||Groups elementary movements into coordinated patterns|
|Supplementary motor area||Frontal lobe||Sequences movements into temporal patterns|
|Prefrontal cortex||Frontal lobe||Planning and other executive functions|
In addition to all of the above, the brain and spinal cord contain extensive circuitry to control the autonomic nervous system, which works by secreting hormones and by modulating the “smooth” muscles of the gut.
Many animals alternate between sleeping and waking in a daily cycle. A key component of the arousal system is the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a tiny part of the hypothalamus located directly above the point at which the optic nerves from the two eyes cross. The SCN contains the body’s central biological clock.
Sleep involves great changes in brain activity. Until the 1950s it was generally believed that the brain essentially shuts off during sleep, but this is now known to be far from true; activity continues, but patterns become very different. There are two types of sleep:
- REM sleep (with dreaming), and
- NREM sleep (non-REM, usually without dreaming)
Patterns of brain activity can be measured as:
- Light NREM, and
- Deep NREM
During deep NREM sleep, activity in the cortex takes the form of large synchronized waves. Levels of the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and serotonin drop and fall almost to zero during REM sleep. Levels of acetylcholine show the reverse pattern.
For any animal, survival requires maintaining a variety of parameters of the bodily state within a limited range of variation, which includes:
- Water content
- Salt concentration in the bloodstream
- Blood glucose levels
- Blood oxygen level, and others
In the vertebrates, the part of the brain that plays the greatest role is the hypothalamus, a small region at the base of the forebrain whose size does not reflect its complexity or the importance of its function. The hypothalamus is a collection of small nuclei, most of which are involved in basic biological functions. Some of these functions relate to arousal or to social interactions such as sexuality, aggression, or maternal behaviors; but many of them relate to homeostasis.
The individual animals need to express survival-promoting behaviors, such as seeking food, water, shelter, and a mate. The motivational system in the brain monitors the current state of satisfaction of these goals and activates behaviors to meet any needs that arise.
Most organisms studied to date utilize a reward-punishment mechanism: for instance, worms and insects can alter their behavior to seek food sources or to avoid dangers. In the vertebrates, the reward-punishment system is implemented by a specific set of brain structures, at the heart of which lie the basal ganglia, a set of interconnected areas at the base of the forebrain.
Learning and memory (सीखने और स्मृति)
Almost all animals are capable of modifying their behavior as a result of experience—even the most primitive types of worms:
- Working memory is the ability of the brain to maintain a temporary representation of information about the task that an animal is currently engaged in.
- Episodic memory is the ability to remember the details of specific events. This sort of memory can last for a lifetime. Much evidence implicates the hippocampus in playing a crucial role.
- Semantic memory is the ability to learn facts and relationships.
- Instrumental learning is the ability for rewards and punishments to modify behavior.
- Motor learning is the ability to refine patterns of body movement by practicing, or more generally by repetition. A number of brain areas are involved, including the premotor cortex, basal ganglia, and especially the cerebellum, which functions as a large memory bank for micro-adjustment of the parameters of movement.
Here is a list of various well-known diseases of the brain:
Other Uses of Brain (मस्तिष्क का अन्य उपयोग)
As food (भोजन के रूप में)
Animal brains are used as food in numerous cuisines.
In rituals (अनुष्ठान में)
Some archaeological evidence suggests that the mourning rituals of European Neanderthals also involved the consumption of the brain.
The Fore people of Papua New Guinea are known to eat human brains. In funerary rituals, those close to the dead would eat the brain of the deceased to create a sense of immortality. A prion disease called kuru has been traced to this.
How to develop Brain & Free Siddha Energy Remedies (मस्तिष्क का विकास कैसे करे और नि:शुल्क सिद्ध ऊर्जा उपचार)
1. Siddha preventive measures (सिद्ध निवारक उपाय)