Cerebrovascular disease (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों का रोग) includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation. Hypertension is the most important contributing risk factor for stroke and cerebrovascular diseases as it can change the structure of blood vessels and result in atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis narrows blood vessels in the brain, resulting in decreased cerebral perfusion. Other risk factors that contribute to stroke include smoking and diabetes. Narrowed cerebral arteries can lead to ischemic stroke, but continually elevated blood pressure can also cause tearing of vessels, leading to a hemorrhagic stroke. Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System considers that our readers to know about the cerebrovascular disease, definition, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, treatment, and free Siddha energy remedies.
Cerebrovascular disease Definition (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग की परिभाषा)
The disease of the blood vessels and, especially, the arteries that supply the brain. Cerebrovascular disease is usually caused by atherosclerosis and can lead to a stroke.
Cerebrovascular diseases Symptoms (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग के लक्षण)
Symptoms of stroke are usually rapid in onset and may include:
- A weakness of one side of the face or body
- Numbness on one side of the face or body
- Inability to produce or understand speech
- Vision changes
- Balance difficulties
Hemorrhagic strokes can present with:
- A very severe, sudden headache associated with vomiting
- Neck stiffness
- Decreased consciousness
Symptoms vary depending on the location and the size of the area of involvement of the stroke. Edema, or swelling, of the brain may occur which increases intracranial pressure and may result in brain herniation. A stroke may result in coma or death if it involves key areas of the brain.
Other symptoms of the cerebrovascular disease include:
- Cognitive decline
However, the cerebrovascular disease may go undetected for years until an acute stroke occurs. In addition, patients with some rare congenital cerebrovascular diseases may begin to have these symptoms in childhood.
Cerebrovascular diseases Causes (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग का कारण)
Examples of congenital cerebrovascular diseases include:
- Arteriovenous malformations
- Germinal matrix hemorrhage
- CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal-Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy)
Arteriovenous malformations are abnormal tangles of blood vessels. Usually, a capillary bed separates arteries from veins, which protects the veins from the high blood pressures that occur in arteries. In arteriovenous malformations, arteries are directly connected to veins, which increases the risk of venous rupture and hemorrhage.
A germinal matrix hemorrhage is bleeding into the brain of premature infants caused by the rupture of fragile blood vessels within the germinal matrix of premature babies. The germinal matrix is a highly vascularized area within an unborn infant’s brain from which brain cells, including neurons and glial cells, originate.
Infants are at most risk to germinal matrix hemorrhages when they are born prematurely, before 32 weeks. The stresses exposed after birth, along with the fragile blood vessels, increase the risk of hemorrhage. Signs and symptoms include flaccid weakness, seizures, abnormal posturing, or irregular respiration.
CADASIL is an inherited disorder caused by mutations in the Notch 3 gene located on chromosome 19. The Notch 3 gene codes for a transmembrane protein whose function is not well-known.
Acquired cerebrovascular diseases are those that are obtained throughout a person’s life that may be preventable by controlling risk factors. The incidence of cerebrovascular disease increases as individual ages. Causes of acquired cerebrovascular disease include:
- Arterial dissections
Atherosclerosis leads to narrowing of blood vessels and less perfusion to the brain, and it also increases the risk of thrombosis, or a blockage of an artery, within the brain. Major modifiable risk factors for atherosclerosis include:
Controlling these risk factors can reduce the incidence of atherosclerosis and stroke. Atrial fibrillation is also a major risk factor for strokes. Atrial fibrillation causes blood clots to form within the heart, which may travel to the arteries within the brain and cause an embolism. The embolism prevents blood flow to the brain, which leads to a stroke.
There are various hereditary disorders associated with intracranial aneurysms, such as:
- Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
- Familial hyperaldosteronism type I
However, individuals without these disorders may also obtain aneurysms. The American Heart Association and American Stroke Association recommend controlling modifiable risk factors including smoking and hypertension.
Idiopathic diseases are those that occur spontaneously without a known cause. Moyamoya is an example of an idiopathic cerebrovascular disorder that results in narrowing and occlusion of intracranial blood vessels. The most common presentation is a stroke or transient ischemic attack, but cognitive decline within children may also be a presenting symptom.
Cerebrovascular diseases Pathophysiology (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग की पैथोफ्य्सिओलोजी)
Mechanism of brain cell death (मस्तिष्क कोशिका मृत्यु का तंत्र)
When a reduction in blood flow lasting seconds occurs, the brain tissue suffers ischemia or inadequate blood supply. If the interruption of blood flow is not restored in minutes, the tissue suffers infarction followed by tissue death.
An ischemic cascade occurs where an energetic molecular problem arises due to lack of oxygen and nutrients. The cascade results in decreased production of adenosine triphosphate, or ATP, which is a high-energy molecule needed for cells in the brain to function.
Consumption of ATP continues in spite of insufficient production, this causes total levels of ATP to decrease and lactate acidosis to become established. The downstream mechanisms of the ischemic cascade thus begin.
Types of stroke (स्ट्रोक के प्रकार)
There are two main divisions of strokes: ischemic and hemorrhagic. An ischemic stroke involves decreased blood supply to regions of the brain, while hemorrhagic stroke is bleeding into or around the brain.
- Ischemic stroke, the most common is caused by a blockage of a blood vessel in the brain, usually caused by thrombosis or emboli from a proximal arterial source or the heart, that leads to the brain being starved of oxygen.
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA) also called a mini-stroke. This is a condition in which the blood flow to a region of the brain is blocked, but blood flow is quickly restored and the brain tissue can fully recover. The symptoms are only transient, leaving no sequelae, or long-term deficits.
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage occurs when blood leaks out of damaged vessels into the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space around the brain.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage is bleeding directly into the brain rather than around the brain. Causes and risk factors include hypertension, blood-thinning medications, trauma, and arteriovenous malformations.
Cerebrovascular diseases Diagnosis (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग का निदान)
Diagnosis of cerebrovascular disease is done by:
- Clinical history
- Physical exam
- Neurological examination
- Acute stroke imaging is generally performed insignificant symptoms of new-onset
It is important to differentiate the symptoms caused by a stroke from those caused by syncope (fainting) which is also a reduction in cerebral blood flow, almost always generalized, but they are usually caused by systemic hypotension of various origins: cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, hemorrhagic shock, among others.
Cerebrovascular diseases Treatment (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग का उपचार)
Treatment for the cerebrovascular disease may include medication, lifestyle changes and/or surgery, depending on the cause.
Examples of medications are:
- Antiplatelets (aspirin, clopidogrel)
- Blood thinners (heparin, warfarin)
- Antihypertensives (ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers)
- Anti-diabetic medications
Surgical procedures include:
- Endovascular surgery and vascular surgery (for future stroke prevention).
Cerebrovascular diseases Prognosis (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग का उपचार)
Prognostics factors: Lower Glasgow coma scale score, higher pulse rate, higher respiratory rate, and lower arterial oxygen saturation level is prognostic features of in-hospital mortality rate in acute ischemic stroke.
Cerebrovascular diseases Epidemiology (मस्तिष्क की रक्तवाहिनियों के रोग का महामारी विज्ञान)
Worldwide, it is estimated there are 31 million stroke survivors, though about 6 million deaths were due to cerebrovascular disease (2nd most common cause of death in the world and 6th most common cause of disability).
The cerebrovascular disease primarily occurs with advanced age; the risk for developing it goes up significantly after 65 years of age. CVD tends to occur earlier than Alzheimer’s Disease (which is rare before the age of 80). In some countries such as Japan, CVD is more common than AD.
Geographically, a “stroke belt” in the US has long been known, similar to the “diabetes belt”, which includes:
- North Carolina
- South Carolina
- West Virginia
Cerebrovascular disease & Free Siddha energy remedies (मस्तिष्क
की रक्तवाहिनियों का रोग और नि:शुल्क सिद्ध ऊर्जा उपचार)
1. Siddha preventive measures (सिद्ध निवारक उपाय)