Metabolic disorders (चयापचयी विकार) can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process. It can also be defined as inherited single gene anomaly, most of which are autosomal recessive. Metabolic disorders can be treatable by nutrition management, especially if detected early. It is important for dieticians to have knowledge of the genotype to, therefore, create a treatment that will be more effective for the individual. This disorder being of most important nature, Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System appeals to our valuable readers to know about its symptoms, causes, types, diagnosis, screening, diseases, risk factors, and how to prevent metabolic disorders.
Metabolic disorders Definition (चयापचय संबंधी विकार की परिभाषा)
It is not a single disease but is determined by the overall health status of the body. It has been found that metabolic disorders are not the result of a single incidence but is caused due to the occurrence of various inter-related conditions. These conditions should be managed to prevent the development of metabolic disorders.
Metabolic disorders Symptoms (चयापचय संबंधी विकार के लक्षण)
Some of the symptoms that can occur with metabolic disorders are:
- Weight loss
The symptoms expressed would vary with the type of metabolic disorder. There are four categories of symptoms:
- Acute symptoms
- Late-onset acute symptoms
- Progressive general symptoms, and
- Permanent symptoms.
Metabolic disorder Causes (चयापचय संबंधी विकार)
Inherited metabolic disorders are one cause of the metabolic disorder, and occur when a defective gene causes an enzyme deficiency. These diseases, of which there are many subtypes, are known as inborn errors of metabolism. Metabolic diseases can also occur when the liver or pancreas do not function properly.
Metabolic disorder Types (चयापचय संबंधी विकार के प्रकार)
The principal classes of metabolic disorders are:
- Acid-base imbalance
- Metabolic brain diseases
- Disorders of calcium metabolism
- DNA repair-deficiency disorders
- Glucose metabolism disorders
- Iron metabolism disorders
- Lipid metabolism disorders
- Malabsorption syndromes
- Metabolic syndrome X
- Inborn error of metabolism
- Mitochondrial diseases
- Phosphorus metabolism disorders
- Proteostasis deficiencies
- Metabolic skin diseases
- Wasting syndrome
- Water-electrolyte imbalance
Metabolic disorders Diagnosis (चयापचय संबंधी विकार का निदान)
Metabolic disorders can be present at birth, and many can be identified by routine screening. If a metabolic disorder is not identified early, then it may be diagnosed later in life, when symptoms appear. Specific blood and DNA tests can be done to diagnose genetic metabolic disorders.
The gut microbiota, which is a population of microorganisms that live in the human digestive system, also has an important part in metabolism and generally has a positive function for its host. In terms of pathophysiological/mechanism interactions, abnormal gut microbioma can play a role in metabolic disorders related to obesity.
Metabolic disorder Screening (चयापचय विकार स्क्रीनिंग)
Metabolic disorder screening can be done in newborns via the following methods:
- Blood test
- Skin test
- Hearing test
Metabolic disorder Diseases (चयापचय संबंधी विकार के रोग)
Tay-Sachs (टे सेक्स)
Tay-Sachs is a disease that causes a progressive deterioration of the body’s brain and neurological system.
Wilson’s Disease (विल्सन की बीमारी)
This disease often goes undiagnosed, because symptoms don’t appear until it is too late to treat. Wilson’s disease causes an overabundance of copper to accumulate in the liver.
Metachromatic leukodystrophy (मेटाक्रोमैटिक ल्यूकोडिस्ट्रॉफी)
Metachromatic leukodystrophy is a condition that causes progressive deterioration of the nervous system and the brain that leads to death.
Metabolic disorders Risk factors (चयापचय संबंधी विकार की जोखिम)
The American Heart Association lists five key metabolic disorder risk factors that increase your likelihood of developing the condition.
Inactive Lifestyle (निष्क्रिय जीवन शैली)
A person’s risk of metabolic disorder increases as their physical activity levels decrease. The results of a study published in PLoS One, a peer-reviewed, open-access journal, showed that the more time participants spent sitting, the greater the likelihood that they would develop the metabolic disorder.
When determining participants’ activity levels, the researchers categorized the following activities as sedentary behaviors:
- Lying down
- Using the computer and other forms of screen-based entertainment
- Watching TV
They considered any participants who engaged in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity per day on at least 5 days of the week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous-intensity activity per day on at least 3 days of the week to be physically active and those who did not meet either of those criteria to be physically inactive.
Insulin Resistance (इंसुलिन प्रतिरोध)
Studies indicate that insulin resistance, a condition in which the cells do not respond properly to insulin, can elevate your risk of metabolic disorders.
Abdominal Obesity (पेट का मोटापा)
As touched on previously, abdominal obesity is a central component of metabolic disorder. However, the connections between abdominal obesity and metabolic disorders are quite complex. Researchers have yet to fully untangle whether one causes the other, or whether it’s simply common for them to develop in tandem.
Population-based studies in the United States show that metabolic disorder is more prevalent among certain racial and ethnic groups than others. Mexican Americans are more likely to develop metabolic disorders than Caucasian Americans, who are more likely to develop the disorder than African Americans.
While researchers agree that sex appears to influence a person’s risk of developing the metabolic disorder, there’s some disagreement over whether men or women are at higher risk.
Some sources, including the NIH, state that women are at higher risk than men. Yet the JAMA research letter seems to undermine that assertion: metabolic disorder incidence among women was noted as trending down slightly, from 39.4% in 2007-2008 to 26.6 % in 2011-2012. This is more aligned with the stance of the American Heart Association, which holds that men have a higher risk than women.
How to prevent Metabolic disorders (चयापचय संबंधी विकार को कैसे रोका जाए)
Lifestyle Changes (जीवन शैली में परिवर्तन)
A metabolic disorder is defined as the cluster of various conditions which increases the risk of:
These conditions are generally in the very initial stage and can be managed by adopting a healthy lifestyle. A healthy diet, physical activity, and managing weight are some of the lifestyle changes that help in reducing the risk of various conditions involved in metabolic disorders such as cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
Exercise helps to reduce weight and also improves insulin resistance. Further, exercise also helps to manage impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance. This can be done through undergoing exercises to maintain belly fat and not try to sit at a single place for too long. Exercise increases the antioxidant capacity of the body, which helps to neutralize the oxidative stress developed in the body due to inflammatory mediators.
Diet plays an important role in preventing the occurrence of metabolic disorders. As the diet helps us in providing energy and also diet is the source of various fats and oils. Thus, healthy foods should be incorporated into the diet to reduce the risk of various cardiovascular diseases. The fiber may be soluble such as in barley and oat and insoluble such as in wheat and corn.
Managing Obesity (मोटापा का प्रबंधन)
According to some researchers, abdominal obesity is the primary reason for a metabolic disorder which eventually gives rise to other risk factors. Abdominal obesity can be managed by undergoing physical training, general weight-reducing exercising, and by maintaining healthy food habits.
Avoid Smoking (धूम्रपान से बचें)
Smoking is an important component in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis. In order to reduce the risk of occurrence of factors responsible for metabolic disorders, the person should quit smoking. This is particularly important for those patients who are suffering from at least one of the risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Smoking increases the risk of insulin resistance. Further, some studies also indicate the positive relationship between smoking and obesity.
Limit Alcohol Intake (शराब का सेवन सीमित करें)
Alcohol is also a major contributor to metabolic syndrome, which increases the synthesis of triglycerides. It increases the risk of developing atherosclerosis. Alcohol also increases the risk of impaired fasting glucose. Studies have all conclude that drinking in higher quantities may also increase the risk of developing obesity and insulin resistance. Thus, the people who are at risk of developing metabolic disorders should limit the intake of alcohol.
When the lifestyle changes and other non-medicated therapies failed to provide substantiate effects on the parameters of conditions, medications are used. These medicines depend upon the type of factor for metabolic disorders to be managed. Drugs used for preventing metabolic syndrome may include anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemia, anti-hyperlipidemia, and anti-hypertensive.
Regular Checkup (नियमित जाँच)
For the patients who are at higher risk for developing metabolic disorders, regular checkups should be done in order to monitor the condition and the development of other related factors.