Yellow fever is a viral disease of typically short duration. In most cases, symptoms include fever, chills, loss of appetite, nausea, muscle pains – particularly in the back – and headaches. The disease originated in Africa and spread to the Americas starting in the 15th century with the European trafficking of enslaved Africans from sub-Saharan Africa. In the 18th and 19th centuries, yellow fever was considered one of the most dangerous infectious diseases; numerous epidemics swept through major cities of the US and in other parts of the world. In 1927, the virus was the first human virus to be isolated.
Definition of Yellow fever
Yellow fever Complication
It can lead to death for 20% to 50% of those who develop severe disease. Jaundice, fatigue, heart rhythm problems, seizures, and internal bleeding may also appear as complications during recovery time.
Yellow fever Symptoms
Yellow fever begins after an incubation period of three to six days. Most cases cause only a mild infection with fever, headache, chills, back pain, fatigue, loss of appetite, muscle pain, nausea, and vomiting. In these cases, the infection lasts only three to six days.
But in 15% of cases, people enter a second, toxic phase of the disease characterized by recurring fever, this time accompanied by jaundice due to liver damage, as well as abdominal pain. Bleeding in the mouth, nose, eyes, and gastrointestinal tract cause vomit containing blood, hence the Spanish name for yellow fever, vómito negro (“black vomit”). There may also be kidney failure, hiccups, and delirium.
Among those who develop jaundice, the fatality rate is 20 to 50%, while the overall fatality rate is about 3 to 7.5%. Severe cases may have mortality greater than 50%. Surviving the infection provides lifelong immunity, and normally results in no permanent organ damage.
Yellow fever Causes
Yellow fever is caused by the yellow fever virus, an enveloped RNA virus 40–50 nm in width, the type species and namesake of the family Flaviviridae. It was the first illness shown to be transmissible by filtered human serum and transmitted by mosquitoes, by American doctor Walter Reed around 1900.
The positive-sense, single-stranded RNA is around 10,862 nucleotides long and has a single open reading frame encoding a polyprotein. Host proteases cut this polyprotein into three structural (C, prM, E) and seven nonstructural proteins (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B, NS5).
The viruses infect, amongst others, monocytes, macrophages, Schwann cells, and dendritic cells. They attach to the cell surfaces via specific receptors and are taken up by an endosomal vesicle.
Inside the endosome, the decreased pH induces the fusion of the endosomal membrane with the virus envelope. The capsid enters the cytosol, decays, and releases the genome. Receptor binding, as well as membrane fusion, are catalyzed by the protein E, which changes its conformation at low pH, causing a rearrangement of the 90 homodimers to 60 homotrimers.
Transmission of Yellow fever
The virus is mainly transmitted through the bite of the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti, but other mostly Aedes mosquitoes such as the tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) can also serve as a vector for this virus.
Like other arboviruses, which are transmitted by mosquitoes, the virus is taken up by a female mosquito when it ingests the blood of an infected human or another primate.
Mosquitoes to humans
Three epidemiologically different infectious cycles occur in which the virus is transmitted from mosquitoes to humans or other primates. In the “urban cycle”, only the yellow fever mosquito A. aegypti is involved.
It is well adapted to urban areas, and can also transmit other diseases, including Zika fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya. The urban cycle is responsible for the major outbreaks of yellow fever that occur in Africa. Except for an outbreak in Bolivia in 1999, this urban cycle no longer exists in South America.
Jungle and urban cycles
In Africa, a third infectious cycle known as the “savannah cycle” or intermediate cycle, occurs between the jungle and urban cycles. Different mosquitoes of the genus Aedes are involved. In recent years, this has been the most common form of transmission in Africa.
Concern exists about yellow fever spreading to southeast Asia, where its vector A. aegypti already occurs.
Yellow fever Pathogenesis
After transmission from a mosquito, the viruses replicate in the lymph nodes and infect dendritic cells in particular. From there, they reach the liver and infect hepatocytes, which leads to the eosinophilic degradation of these cells and to the release of cytokines.
Apoptotic masses known as Councilman bodies appear in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Fatality may occur when cytokine storm, shock, and multiple organ failure follow.
Yellow fever Diagnosis
It is most frequently a clinical diagnosis, based on symptomatology and travel history. Mild cases of the disease can only be confirmed virologically. Since mild cases of yellow fever can also contribute significantly to regional outbreaks, every suspected case (involving symptoms of fever, pain, nausea, and vomiting 6–10 days after leaving the affected area) is treated seriously.
Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
If yellow fever is suspected, the virus cannot be confirmed until 6–10 days following the illness. A direct confirmation can be obtained by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, where the genome of the virus is amplified. Another direct approach is the isolation of the virus and its growth in cell culture using blood plasma; this can take 1–4 weeks.
Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Serologically, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay during the acute phase of the disease using specific IgM against yellow fever or an increase in specific IgG titer (compared to an earlier sample) can confirm it.
Together with clinical symptoms, the detection of IgM or a four-fold increase in IgG titer is considered a sufficient indication of yellow fever. As these tests can cross-react with other flaviviruses, such as the dengue virus, these indirect methods cannot conclusively prove the infection.
Liver biopsy can verify inflammation and necrosis of hepatocytes and detect viral antigens. Because of the bleeding tendency of patients, a biopsy is the only advisable post-mortem to confirm the cause of death.
In a differential diagnosis, infections must be distinguished from other feverish illnesses such as malaria. Other viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as the Ebola virus, Lassa virus, Marburg virus, and Junin virus, must be excluded as the cause.
Yellow fever Prevention
Personal prevention includes vaccination and avoidance of mosquito bites in areas where yellow fever is endemic. Institutional measures for the prevention of yellow fever include vaccination programs and measures to control mosquitoes.
Use insect repellent when outdoors such as those containing DEET, picaridin, ethyl butyl acetylamino propionate (IR3535), or oil of lemon eucalyptus on exposed skin.
Mosquitoes may bite through thin clothing, so spraying clothes with repellent containing permethrin or another EPA-registered repellent gives extra protection. Clothing treated with permethrin is commercially available. Mosquito repellents containing permethrin are not approved for application directly to the skin.
Accommodations with screened or air-conditioned rooms
The peak biting times for many mosquito species are dusk to dawn. However, A. aegypti, one of the mosquitoes that transmit the yellow fever virus, feeds during the daytime. Staying in accommodations with screened or air-conditioned rooms, particularly during peak biting times, also reduces the risk of mosquito bites.
Yellow fever Vaccination
Vaccination is recommended for those traveling to affected areas because non-native people tend to develop more severe illnesses when infected. Protection begins by the 10th day after vaccine administration in 95% of people and had been reported to last for at least 10 years.
The World Health Organization (WHO) now states that a single dose of vaccine is sufficient to confer lifelong immunity against yellow fever disease. The attenuated live vaccine stem 17D was developed in 1937 by Max Theiler. The WHO recommends routine vaccination for people living in affected areas between the 9th and 12th month after birth.
Some countries in Asia are considered to be potentially in danger of the epidemics, as both mosquitoes with the capability to transmit yellow fever as well as susceptible monkeys are present. The disease does not yet occur in Asia.
To prevent the introduction of the virus, some countries demand previous vaccination of foreign visitors who have passed through yellow fever areas. Vaccination has to be proved by a vaccination certificate, which is valid 10 days after the vaccination and lasts for 10 years.
Control of mosquito A. aegypti is of major importance, especially because the same mosquito can also transmit dengue fever and chikungunya disease. A. aegypti breeds preferentially in water, for example, in installations by inhabitants of areas with precarious drinking water supplies, or in domestic refuse, especially tires, cans, and plastic bottles. These conditions are common in urban areas in developing countries.
Main strategies to reduce A. aegypti populations
Two main strategies are employed to reduce A. aegypti populations. One approach is to kill the developing larvae. Measures are taken to reduce the water accumulations in which the larvae develop. Larvicides are used, along with larvae-eating fish and copepods, which reduce the number of larvae.
The second strategy is to reduce populations of adult yellow fever mosquitoes. Lethal ovitraps can reduce Aedes populations, using lesser amounts of pesticide because it targets the pest directly. Curtains and lids of water tanks can be sprayed with insecticides, but application inside houses is not recommended by the WHO. Insecticide-treated mosquito nets are effective, just as they are against the Anopheles mosquito that carries malaria.
Yellow fever Treatment
As with other Flavivirus infections, no cure is known for yellow fever. Hospitalization is advisable and intensive care may be necessary because of rapid deterioration in some cases. Certain acute treatment methods lack efficacy: passive immunization after the emergence of symptoms is probably without effect; ribavirin and other antiviral drugs, as well as treatment with interferons, are ineffective in yellow fever patients.
Symptomatic treatment includes rehydration and pain relief with drugs such as paracetamol (acetaminophen). Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin). However, aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are often avoided because of an increased risk of gastrointestinal bleeding due to their anticoagulant effects.
What is the best treatment for yellow fever?
Yellow fever Risk Factors
- Transmission in rural West Africa is seasonal, with an elevated risk during the end of the rainy season and the beginning of the dry season (usually July–October). However, the virus may be episodically transmitted by Aedes aegypti even during the dry season in both rural and densely settled urban areas.
- The risk for infection in South America is highest during the rainy season (January–May, with a peak incidence in February and March).
- Given the high level of viremia that may occur in infected humans and the widespread distribution of Aedes aegypti in many towns and cities, South America is at risk for a large-scale urban epidemic.
- Only a small proportion of yellow fever cases is recognized and officially reported because the involved areas are often remote and lack specific diagnostic capabilities. The risk of acquiring yellow fever is difficult to predict because of variations in the ecologic determinants of virus transmission.
- During interepidemic periods, the low-level transmission may not be detected by public health surveillance.
- Such interepidemic conditions may last years or even decades in certain countries or regions.
- This “epidemiologic silence” does not equate to the absence of risk and should not lead to travel without the protection provided by vaccination.
- The risk of acquiring yellow fever in South America is lower than that in Africa because the mosquitoes that transmit the virus to monkeys in the forest canopy in South America do not often come in contact with humans.
- Additionally, there is a relatively high level of immunity in local residents because of vaccine use, which might reduce the risk of transmission.
Natural remedies to get rid of Yellow fever
You may exhibit symptoms like a headache, dizziness, fever, tiredness, nausea, vomiting, chills, and so on. Furthermore, the symptoms can become severe and life-threatening and can cause kidney and liver failure, eye, nose, and ear bleeding, abdominal pain, lethargy, and many more. So, consult your doctor if you experience any of the above symptoms. He/ she will be able to suggest you proper treatment. Moreover, you can also opt for these natural solutions which will help you to overcome them:
- You can opt for fenugreek: It is beneficial for you if you are suffering from yellow fever. It is abundant in fiber, protein, niacin, iron, and so on, and can tackle yellow fever. You can add it to your daily diet. To make your dishes tasty and aromatic, you can incorporate fenugreek powder into your soups and curry.
- You can opt for cayenne pepper: It is a good source of capsaicin which can help you to fight infections. You can add cayenne peppers to your snacks or sauce and enjoy it. Remember you should not go overboard. Just talk to your expert about the quantity in which you should consume it.
Yellow fever Epidemiology
Yellow fever is common in tropical and subtropical areas of South America and Africa. Worldwide, about 600 million people live in endemic areas. The WHO estimates 200,000 cases of yellow fever worldwide each year. About 15% of people infected with yellow fever progress to a severe form of the illness, and up to half of those will die, as there is no cure for yellow fever.
An estimated 90% of yellow fever infections occur on the African continent. In 2016, a large outbreak originated in Angola and spread to neighboring countries before being contained by a massive vaccination campaign. In March and April 2016, 11 imported cases of the Angola genotype in unvaccinated Chinese nationals were reported in China, the first appearance of the disease in Asia in recorded history.
In South America, two genotypes have been identified (South American genotypes I and II). Based on phylogenetic analysis these two genotypes appear to have originated in West Africa and were first introduced into Brazil.
The date of introduction of the predecessor African genotype which gave rise to the South American genotypes appears to be 1822 (95% confidence interval 1701 to 1911).
The main vector (A. aegypti) also occurs in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, the Pacific, and Australia, but yellow fever has never occurred there until jet travel introduced 11 cases from the 2016 Angola and DR Congo yellow fever outbreak in Africa. Proposed explanations include:
- That the strains of the mosquito in the east are less able to transmit the yellow fever virus.
- That immunity is present in the populations because of other diseases caused by related viruses (for example, dengue).
- That the disease was never introduced because the shipping trade was insufficient.
But none is considered satisfactory. Another proposal is the absence of slave trade to Asia on the scale of that to the Americas. The trans-Atlantic slave trade probably introduced yellow fever into the Western Hemisphere from Africa.
Yellow fever Research
In the hamster model of yellow fever, early administration of the antiviral ribavirin is an effective treatment of many pathological features of the disease. Ribavirin treatment during the first five days after virus infection improved survival rates, reduced tissue damage in the liver and spleen, prevented hepatocellular steatosis, and normalized levels of alanine aminotransferase, a liver damage marker.
The mechanism of action of ribavirin in reducing liver pathology in yellow fever virus infection may be similar to its activity in the treatment of hepatitis C, a related virus. Because ribavirin had failed to improve survival in a virulent rhesus model of yellow fever infection, it had been previously discounted as a possible therapy. Infection was reduced in mosquitoes with the wMel strain of Wolbachia. Yellow fever has been researched by several countries as a potential biological weapon.
Siddha remedies for Yellow fever
1. Siddha preventive measures
Everybody must practice Siddha preventive measures, whether a person is affected by yellow fever or not, but preventive measures are the primary steps for switching on to any other Siddha remedies, and hence they are important. It helps in one’s capability, effectiveness, productivity, decision-making power, intellectuality, and removing minor health problems. There are three types of preventive measures:
- Earthing – performed for removing and earthing the negativity of our body.
- Field cleaning – cleans the energy field (Aura) of our body.
- Siddha brain exercise/Energizing – energizes our brain for proper functionality.
Everybody’s tendency is to get attracted to the word ‘free, however, don’t neglect even these Siddha preventive measures are free. Avail of the benefits by practicing them sincerely, and regularly. For ease of understanding of what Siddha preventive measures are, please watch a video for a live demonstration.
2. Siddha Shaktidata Yoga
This unique Siddha Shaktidata Yoga can solve the problems related to yellow fever. There is no compulsion of training in ‘Swami Hardas Life System’ methods. This not only gives benefits to self but also it can be used for other affected persons, whether a person is in the same house, distantly available in the same city, same nation, or might be in any corner of the world, however, both the procedures have been explained here.
3. Siddha Kalyan Sadhana
Recite this Sadhana with a Sankalp “My problems of yellow fever are solved as early as possible and I should gain health”, which should be repeated in mind 3 – 3 times after each stanza of the Sadhana. Any person irrespective of caste, creed, religion, faith, sex, and age can recite this Sadhana for free, which should be repeated at least twice a day. To know more, please click on this link.
4. CCPE products
These products work on the concepts of ‘Conceptual CreativePositive Energy’ (CCPE) within the provisions of the ‘CCPE Life System’ and the theory of Quantum Technology to a certain extent. However, please use these products for yellow fever as mentioned below:
CCPE Extractor: The CCPE Extractor should be gently moved over the Agya Chakra in a circular motion at least for 30 to 60 seconds, thereafter, follow the same process on the head, chest, naval, and knees which finishes within almost 2-4 minutes.
CCPE Booster: Keep one Booster over the Agya Chakra and another on the head, chest, naval, and knees for 3 minutes. You may need to have 5 Boosters, which establishes positivity.
5. UAM or Touch Therapy
For quick and effective results, it is advisable to learn the unique methods of the Swami Hardas Life System. A trained person can only apply the UAM method or Touch therapy himself/herself and also become capable of healing others.
A daily routine
In general, a daily routine for yellow fever may look like this:
- Follow the instructions of your Doctor.
- Consume Sattvic diet
- Perform breathing exercises regularly
- Do some Yoga exercises
- Perform walking exercises
- Apply free touch therapy (UAM) a minimum 3 times a day, as explained above
- Perform Swayamsiddha Agnihotra or Agnihotra daily, either self or the caretaker can perform
- In case, if someone wishes to learn advanced methods of Swami Hardas Life System, undergo unique training
Ensure to sprinkle in some fun during the day: Don’t forget to relax and laugh in between. Laughing is a great way to boost your immune system and help you.
Along with all the above activities, apply above explained free Siddha remedies minimum 3 times a day, the more is good. Just try the methods of Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System. I am confident that you will surely find improvements within 3 days.
Training of Swami Hardas Life System
Any health, peace, and the progress-related problem can be solved independently by undergoing Swami Hardas Life System training. It needs no money and medicines. Any person irrespective of religion, caste, creed, faith, sex, and age can undergo this unique training.
Because of the above, I am confident that you have learned about yellow fever, its definition, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, prevention, risk factors, treatment, and Siddha remedies. Now, that you have become self-sufficient, hence it’s the right time to use your acquired knowledge for solving problems as per the provision available in Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System.
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Frequently asked questions
Before posting your query, kindly go through them:
|What is the definition of yellow fever?
An acute infectious disease that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa and tropical South America, is marked by symptoms of sudden onset which typically resolve within a few days but are sometimes followed by some more serious symptoms.
|Which are the complications of yellow fever?
It can lead to death for 20% to 50% of those who develop severe disease. Jaundice, fatigue, heart rhythm problems, seizures, and internal bleeding may also appear as complications of yellow fever during recovery time.
|What are the Natural remedies for yellow fever?
You can opt for these natural solutions which will help you to overcome them: (1) You can opt for fenugreek: It is beneficial for you if you are suffering from yellow fever. It is abundant in fiber, protein, niacin, iron, and so on, and can tackle yellow fever. You can add it to your daily diet. To make your dishes tasty and aromatic, you can incorporate fenugreek powder into your soups and curry. (2) You can opt for cayenne pepper: It is a good source of capsaicin which can help you to fight infections. You can add cayenne peppers to your snacks or sauce and enjoy it. Remember you should not go overboard. Just talk to your expert about the quantity in which you should consume it.