Saturated Fat & Health Hazards

Saturated fat (संपृक्त चरबी) is a type of fat in which the fatty acid chains have all or predominantly single bonds. A fat is made of two kinds of smaller molecules: glycerol and fatty acids. Fats are made of long chains of carbon atoms. Some carbon atoms are linked by single bonds and others are linked by double bonds. Double bonds can react with hydrogen to form single bonds. They are called saturated because the second bond is broken and each half of the bond is attached to (saturated with) a hydrogen atom. Most animal fats are saturated. Siddha Spirituality of Swami Hardas Life System being more conscious about health, we appeal readers to know about saturated fat in detail.

The fats of plants and fish are generally unsaturated. Saturated fats tend to have higher melting points than their corresponding unsaturated fat, leading to the popular understanding that saturated fat tend to be solids at room temperatures, while unsaturated fat tend to be liquid at room temperature with varying degrees of viscosity (meaning both saturated and unsaturated fats are found to be liquid at body temperature).

Saturated fat Definition (संपृक्त चरबी की परिभाषा)

A high proportion of fatty acid molecules without double bonds, considered to be less healthy in the diet than unsaturated fat.

Image result for saturated fat definition picture
Saturated Fat Definition

Saturated fat Profiles (संपृक्त चरबी का रेखा-चित्र)

While nutrition labels regularly combine them, the saturated fatty acids appear in different proportions among food groups. Lauric and myristic acids are most commonly found in “tropical” oils:

  • Palm kernel
  • Coconut
  • Dairy products

The saturated fat is found in:

  • Meat
  • Eggs
  • Cacao
  • Nuts

Examples of saturated fatty acids (संपृक्त चरबी के उदाहरण)

Some common examples of fatty acids:

  • Butyric acid with 4 carbon atoms (contained in butter)
  • Lauric acid with 12 carbon atoms (contained in coconut oil, palm kernel oil, and breast milk)
  • Myristic acid with 14 carbon atoms (contained in cow’s milk and dairy products)
  • Palmitic acid with 16 carbon atoms (contained in palm oil and meat)
  • Stearic acid with 18 carbon atoms (also contained in meat and cocoa butter)

Saturated fat chart

A detailed chart of saturated fats with comparison to Monounsaturated and Polyunsaturated fats:

Food Saturated Mono-
unsaturated
Poly-
unsaturated
As weight percent (%) of total fat
Cooking oils
Walnuts dry roasted 09 23 63
 
Turkey drumstick 32 22 30
Turkey breast 30 20 30
Sweets and baked goods
Sunflower seeds 11 19 66
Sunflower oil 11 20 69
Soybeans 14 22 57
Soybean oil 15 24 58
Shortening 25 45 26
Sesame seeds 14 38 44
Sausage, turkey 28 40 22
Sausage, Polish 37 46 11
Salmon 28 33 28
Safflower oil, linoleic 06 14 75
Safflower oil, high oleic 06 75 14
Rice bran oil 25 38 37
Porkchop 35 44 08
Pizza, sausage 41 32 20
Pizza, cheese 60 28 05
Pecans dry roasted 08 62 25
Peanut oil 17 46 32
Peanut dry roasted 14 50 31
Pastry, Danish 50 31 14
Palm oil 51 39 10
Palm kernel oil 86 12 02
Other
Olive oil 14 73 11
Nuts
Mustard oil 11 59 21
Milk, whole 62 28 04
Milk, 2% 62 30 00
Meats
Margarine, tub 16 33 49
Margarine, stick 18 39 39
Margarine, light tub 19 46 33
Macadamia dry roasted 15 79 02
Lard 39 45 11
Ice cream, light 62 29 04
Ice cream, gourmet 62 29 04
Hot dog, turkey 28 40 22
Hot dog, beef 42 48 05
Ham 35 49 16
Ground sirloin 38 44 04
Grilled chicken sandwich 26 42 20
Goose fat 33 55 11
Flaxseeds, ground 08 23 65
Fish, orange roughy 23 15 46
Fats added during cooking or at the table
Egg yolk fat 36 44 16
Dressing, light Italian 14 24 58
Dressing, blue cheese 16 54 25
Dairy products
Cottonseed oil 27 19 54
Corn oil 13 24 59
Cookie, oatmeal raisin 22 47 27
Cookie, chocolate chip 35 42 18
Coconut oil 87 13 00
Chicken fat 30 45 21
Chicken breast 29 34 21
Chicken 34 23 30
Cheeseburger, fast food 43 40 07
Cheese, regular 64 29 03
Cheese, light 60 30 00
Cashews dry roasted 20 59 17
Canola oil 08 64 28
Candy, fruit chews 14 44 38
Candy, chocolate bar 59 33 03
Cake, yellow 60 25 10
Butterfat 66 30 04
Butter, whipped 62 29 04
Butter, stick 63 29 03
Burger, fast food 36 44 06
Breaded chicken sandwich 20 39 32
Beef fat 41 43 03
Beef 33 38 05
Avocado 16 71 13
Almonds dry roasted 09 65 21
Whipping cream 66 26 05
 

Saturated fat & Health Hazards (संपृक्त चरबी का स्वास्थ्य को खतरा)

Cardiovascular disease (हृदय रोग)

There are strong, consistent, and graded relationships between saturated fat intake, blood cholesterol levels, and the epidemic of cardiovascular disease. The relationships are accepted as causal.

Many health authorities such as the American Dietetic Association, the British Dietetic Association, American Heart Association, the World Heart Federation, the British National Health Service, among others, advise that saturated fat is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The World Health Organization in May 2015 recommends switching from saturated to unsaturated fats.

A small, limited number of systematic reviews have examined the relationship between saturated fat and cardiovascular disease and have come to different conclusions. However, these rely on observational studies and can therefore not be used to establish cause and effect relationships.

While many studies have found that including polyunsaturated fats in the diet in place of saturated fats produces more beneficial CVD outcomes, the effects of substituting monounsaturated fats or carbohydrates are unclear.

Dyslipidemia (डिसलिपिडेमिया)

The consumption of saturated fat is generally considered a risk factor for dyslipidemia, which in turn is a risk factor for some types of cardiovascular disease.

Abnormal blood lipid levels, that is high total cholesterol, high levels of triglycerides, high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL, “bad” cholesterol) or low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL, “good” cholesterol) cholesterol are all associated with increased risk of heart disease and stroke.

Saturated fat effects Cancer (संपृक्त चरबी का प्रभाव कैंसर)

Breast cancer (स्तन कैंसर)

A meta-analysis published in 2003 found a significant positive relationship in both control and cohort studies between saturated fat and breast cancer. However, two subsequent reviews have found weak or insignificant associations of saturated fat intake and breast cancer risk, and note the prevalence of confounding factors.

Colorectal cancer (कोलोरेक्टल कैंसर)

One review found limited evidence for a positive relationship between consuming animal fat and the incidence of colorectal cancer.

Ovarian cancer (अंडाशयी कैंसर)

Meta-analyses of clinical studies found evidence for increased risk of ovarian cancer by high consumption of saturated fat.

Prostate cancer (प्रोस्टेट कैंसर)

Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid and palmitic acid and dietary myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha-tocopherol supplementation are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. These associations may, however, reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the pre-cancer cases and controls.

Saturated fat effects Bones (संपृक्त चरबी से प्रभावशाली हड्डियाँ)

Mounting evidence indicates that the amount and type of fat in the diet can have important effects on bone health. Most of this evidence is derived from animal studies. The data from one study indicated that bone mineral density is negatively associated with saturated fat intake and that men may be particularly vulnerable.

Saturated fat Dietary recommendations (संपृक्त चरबी आहार की सिफारिशें)

Recommendations to reduce or limit dietary intake of saturated fats are made by the:

  • World Health Organization
  • American Heart Association of Health
  • US Department of Health and Human Services
  • UK Food Standards Agency
  • Australian Department of Health and Aging
  • Singapore Government Health Promotion Board
  • Indian Government Citizens Health Portal
  • New Zealand Ministry of Health
  • Food and Drugs Board of Ghana
  • Republic of Guyana Ministry of Health
  • Hong Kong’s Centre for Food Safety.

Advice

The United Kingdom, National Health Service claims the majority of British people eat too much-saturated fat. People are advised to cut down on saturated fat and read labels on the food they buy.

In a 2017 comprehensive review of the literature and clinical trials, the American Heart Association published a recommendation that saturated fat intake be reduced or replaced by products containing monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, a dietary adjustment that could reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases by 30%.

Molecular description (आणविक विवरण)

The two-dimensional illustration has implicit hydrogen atoms bonded to each of the carbon atoms in the polycarbonate tail of the myristic acid molecule.

Carbon atoms are also implicitly drawn, as they are portrayed as intersections between two straight lines. “Saturated,” in general, refers to a maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to each carbon of the polycarbonate tail as allowed by the Octet Rule. This also means that only single bonds will be present between adjacent carbon atoms of the tail.

Image result for Saturated fat Molecular description picture
Saturated Fat Molecular Description

Reference: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturated_fat

Advertisements

4 thoughts on “Saturated Fat & Health Hazards

May you be bestowed with health, peace and progress!

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

%d bloggers like this:
Skip to toolbar